Established for over 50 years with excellent industrial links and an outstanding record for the employment of its graduates, this course has been developed to provide the industry with high calibre engineers that are equipped with the necessary skills to advance vehicle technology to meet the demands of the future.

Overview

  • Start dateOctober
  • DurationOne year full-time
  • DeliveryTaught modules 50%, Group project 10%, Individual research project 40%
  • QualificationMSc
  • Study typeFull-time
  • CampusCranfield campus

Who is it for?

The MSc in Automotive Engineering is suitable for graduates in engineering, physics or mathematics, and will prepare you for a career in this exciting field, from engine design to hybrid and electric vehicles, chassis and braking operations, and much more.

Why this course?

This course aims to provide graduates with the technical qualities, transferable skills and independent learning ability to make them effective in organisations that design and develop automotive products. Our strategic links with industry ensure that all of the course material is relevant, timely and meets the needs of organisations competing within the automotive sector. This industry-led education makes Cranfield graduates some of the most desirable in the world for automotive companies to recruit.

We offer students the opportunity to study in a postgraduate only environment where Masters' graduates can go onto secure positions in full-time employment in their chosen field, or undertake academic research. You will be taught by leading academics as well as industrial practitioners, and work alongside a strong research team at Cranfield University. Industry placements are on offer during research work.

Informed by Industry

The MSc in Automotive Engineering is directed by an Industrial Advisory Panel comprising senior engineers from the automotive sector. This maintains course relevancy and ensures that graduates are equipped with the skills and knowledge required by leading employers. You will have the opportunity to meet this panel and present your individual research project to them at an annual event held in July. Panel members include:

  • Mr Rod J Calvert OBE (Chair), Automotive Management Consultant
  • Mr Steven Miles, Ford Motor Company Ltd
  • Mr Clive Crewe, AVL
  • Mr Peter Stoker, Millbrook
  • Mr Stefan Strahnz, Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport
  • Mr Simon Dowson, Delta Motorsport
  • Mr Paul McCarthy, JCB Power Systems
  • Mr Steve Swift, Emerald Automotive
  • Mr Doug Cross, Flybrid Automotive Ltd
  • Mr Steve Henson, Barclays
  • Dr Leon Rosario, Ricardo
  • Mr David Hudson, Tata Motors
  • Mr Tobias Knichel, Punch Flybrid Limited
  • Mr Iain Bomphray, Williams Advanced Engineering
  • Mr Keith Benjamin, Jaguar Land Rover




Accreditation

The MSc is accredited by Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) & Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) on behalf of the Engineering Council as meeting the requirements for Further Learning for registration as a Chartered Engineer. Candidates must hold a CEng accredited BEng/BSc (Hons) undergraduate first degree to comply with full CEng registration requirements.


Course details

This course comprises eight compulsory taught modules that are assessed via a combination of written exams and individual coursework assignments, a group project and an individual research project.

Group project

You will undertake a substantial group project between October and March, which focuses on designing and optimising a particular vehicle system/assembly. This is designed to prepare you for the project-based working environment within the majority of the automotive industry.

As a group, you will be required to present your findings, market the product and demonstrate technical expertise in the form of a written submission and a presentation to the Industrial Advisory Board, academic staff and fellow students. This presentation provides the opportunity to develop presentation skills and effectively handle questions about complex issues in a professional manner.

View details of the 2017 Group Project - Design of an autonomous (self driving) electric vehicle

Individual project

The individual research project is the largest single component of the course taking place between April and August. It allows you to develop specialist skills in an area of your choice by taking the theory from the taught modules and joining it with practical application, usually involving a design feasibility assessment, systems analysis or facility development. Most of the projects are initiated by industrial contacts or associated with current research programmes.

In recent years, some industry sponsors have given students the opportunity to be based on site. Thesis topics will often become the basis of an employment opportunity or PhD research topic.

Assessment

Taught modules 50%, Group project 10%, Individual research project 40%

University Disclaimer

Keeping our courses up-to-date and current requires constant innovation and change. The modules we offer reflect the needs of business and industry and the research interests of our staff and, as a result, may change or be withdrawn due to research developments, legislation changes or for a variety of other reasons. Changes may also be designed to improve the student learning experience or to respond to feedback from students, external examiners, accreditation bodies and industrial advisory panels.

To give you a taster, we have listed the compulsory modules and (where applicable) some elective modules affiliated with this programme which ran in the academic year 2017–2018. There is no guarantee that these modules will run for 2018 entry. All modules are subject to change depending on your year of entry.

Compulsory modules
All the modules in the following list need to be taken as part of this course

Vehicle Design Powertrain and Performance

Module Leader
  • Dr Marko Tirovic
Aim
    • Provide deep understanding of vehicle concepts and designs, including major systems, assemblies and components.
    • Establish approaches and procedures to analysing and predicting vehicle performance.
    • Develop methodologies to predicting critical loading cases, selecting materials and manufacturing methods, dimensioning and fully specifying vehicle systems, assemblies and components.
    • Critically evaluate the integration of different alternative powertrain options and be able to select appropriate solutions within the context of realistic constraints on performance, efficiency, and drivability.
    • Qualify students to generate novel automotive vehicle concepts and designs that are passenger friendly, structurally sound, safe, fuel efficient, environmentally friendly, refined and comply with legislation.
Syllabus

    Basic vehicle characteristics: Vehicle concepts, centre of gravity position, static and dynamic loads and weight distributions, front, rear and all wheel drive. Adhesion coefficient and influencing factors. Traction, braking and resistance to motion.

    Vehicle performance: Maximum speed, hill start and climbing. Over and under gearing. Fixed and variable gear ratios: number and distribution of gear ratios. Methods for determining acceleration through the gears.

    Fuel consumption: Engine characteristics & fuel maps. Determination of fuel consumption. Energy aspects. Legislative Drive Cycles.

    Braking performance: Influence of resistances and inertia. Brake force distribution. ECE 13 legislation. Calculation of required braking characteristics. Stopping distance.

    Vehicle as a complex system: Understanding conceptual and compatibility issues regarding vehicle structure, engine, transmission, suspension, packaging and influence on vehicle performance.

    Ergonomics & Packaging: Seating layout, door accessibility, mechanical layout: engine/transmission positions, drivelines, influence of suspensions on space and structure, ground clearance, front and rear approach angles.

    Safety: Principles of passenger restraints, elastic/plastic restraints, energy dissipation, rebound energy (whiplash). Vehicle restraint systems and safety features. Hybrid and electric vehicle safety considerations.

    Legislation: Introduction to regulations, European directories, USA federal motor vehicle safety standards. Understanding the influence of relevant legislation on vehicle systems design.

    Driveline components: Friction clutches, dry and wet. Final drives, spiral, bevel, hypoid and helical gears. Differentials, description of open, viscous, Torsen and other limited slip differentials. Design characteristics and principles. Velocity ratios of Hooke’s joints, design characteristics of various constant velocity joints.

    Manual & automatic transmissions: Description of gearbox layout and gear change mechanisms. Gearbox loads & design principles. Synchromesh mechanisms, theory of synchronisation. Epicyclic gears, torque converter, gear combinations & configurations. Automated manual & dual clutch transmissions. Continuously variable transmissions. Actuation, system operation & performance characteristics.

    Hybrid and electric vehicles: Basic definitions, HEV and EV architectures, advantages and disadvantages. Electrical and mechanical energy storage technologies including battery management considerations.

    Brakes and braking systems: Disc and drum brakes, braking systems – design, dimensioning and evaluation. Materials, manufacturing methods and testing.

    Vehicle refinement: Basic details of noise vibration and harshness and attributes for vehicle refinement.



Intended learning outcomes On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:
1. Assess and critically evaluate various vehicle concepts, determine their characteristics, advantages and limitations. Analyse various vehicle, system and assembly designs; compare their characteristics, advantages and limitations using valid criteria.
2. Interpret and apply legislative requirements in generating vehicle concepts and designs.
3. Predict resistances to motion, determine powertrain system characteristics, calculate vehicle performance (max. speed, acceleration, gradient, fuel economy, CO2 emissions etc).
4. Generate novel vehicle concepts, match characteristics of powertrain systems and components; optimise vehicle performance characteristics for the selected criteria / benchmarks.
5. Demonstrate understanding of hybrid vehicle architectures and their technologies.
6. Generate new vehicle, system, assembly and component designs, dimension and optimise them for the specified critical load cases, materials and manufacturing methods. Perform all necessary activities in order to ensure the vehicles and systems are efficient, safe, and comply with regulations.

Engine Fuels and Lubrication

Module Leader
  • Dr Glenn Sherwood
Aim

    The aim of this module is to:

      • Equip students with the necessary skills to understand the mechanics of powertrain systems for automotive applications.
      • Equip students with knowledge to be able to evaluate the impact of powertrain systems on global emissions.
Syllabus

    The module includes a systems view of engine technology including:

    • Performance and emissions targets
    • Engine layouts and thermodynamic cycles
    • Basic Powertrain architectural options for electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
    • Combustion thermochemistry
    • Fuel types and properties
    • Combustion in petrol and diesel engines
    • Ignition and ignition timing
    • Engine breathing
    • Fuel injection systems
    • Engine cooling
    • Exhaust after treatment
    • Advanced and future engine technologies
    • Tribology of bearing design
    • Frictional losses
    • Lubrication

Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:
1. Identify and critically assess different engines for automotive applications.
2. Critically assess the main factors that result in global emissions from engines.
3. Evaluate and critically assess global legislation of automotive emissions.
4. Evaluate the contribution of engines as prime mover in vehicles within a Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legislative and Environmental framework.
5. Evaluate and critically assess the methods of emissions abatement for vehicles.

Automotive Control and Simulation

Module Leader
  • Dr Daniel Auger
Aim

    • To equip students with the skills needed to understand, design and assess single-variable feedback control algorithms using classical control techniques for use in automotive systems.
    • To introduce students to MATLAB and Simulink, industry-standard CAD tools for control system design.

Syllabus

    The module will provide knowledge in advanced control design tools and techniques and advance analytical methods in designing multivariable controllers with applications in the automotive engineering area. The theory of the multivariable controls will be introduced and then their use will be illustrated and developed by example applications. The theory and applications will be interleaved with selected associated topics (listed below) as appropriate through the module.

    The material will be addressed theoretically and practically: all lecture-based teaching will be supported by practical exercises using MATLAB and Simulink.
    • Revision of key concepts (covered only in outline)
    o Representing mechanical and electrical systems using differential equations
    o Use of Laplace methods
    o Transfer functions, poles and transmission zeros, and frequency responses
    o Convolution and time-domain responses

    • Creating computer models in MATLAB and Simulink
    o Introduction to MATLAB programming
    o Introduction to modelling and simulation in Simulink
    o Linear system analysis in MATLAB
    o Finding operating points and linear models using MATLAB and Simulink

    • Classical control concepts
    o Key feedback concepts: stability, tracking performance, noise/disturbance rejection
    o Relationships between closed-loop functions S(s), T(s) and loop-gain L(s)
    o Nyquist stability criterion for stable systems, gain/phase margin and Bode diagram

    • Classical control design
    o Frequency-domain loop-shaping
    o PID design and its relationship to frequency-domain loop-shaping
    o Introduction to prefilter design and ‘feed-forward’
    o Actuator saturation, noise and integrator wind-up

    • Estimator (state observer) design
    o Introduction to linear state-space representations
    o Estimator design using pole-placement methods



Intended learning outcomes
  • On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:
    1. Evaluate an automotive system (in terms of its performance, robustness, and sensitivity to noise and disturbances) using classical control concepts and methods.
    2. Design feedback control algorithms to meet specified performance requirements using frequency-domain ‘loop-shaping’ methods and PID techniques, and to understand trade-offs and limitations on what can be achieved.
    3. Create Simulink simulations of multi-domain automotive systems suitable for performance analysis and control system design, and assess control systems with these models.
    4. Evaluate operating points and construct linearized state-space and transfer function modules using MATLAB and Simulink.
    5. Construct a linear observer (state estimator) using pole-placement methods, and inspect its behaviour using MATLAB and Simulink.

Vehicle Structures and Crashworthiness

Aim
    The module aims to provide an introduction to the selection, processing, design, and analysis of vehicles. Emphasis will be given to understanding and practical experience of the use of composite materials in car structures including materials selection, component design, manufacturing technology processing and performance.

    The module offers combination of fundamental concepts lectures, engineering theories, lab exercises, finite element modelling and simulations, tutorial and peer review exercises.


Syllabus
    • The physical properties and models of high strength steels, stainless steels, metal matrix composites of aluminium and titanium alloys, rubbers, elastomers, plastics, honeycomb and polymer composites.
    • Structural response and stiffness analyses for the above mentioned materials.
    • Manufacturing technology and joining techniques.
    • Design of safety and crash structures.
    • An introduction into finite element modelling and simulations.
    • An introduction into shape optimisation.
    • Identification of failure modes and non-destructive test methods


Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:
1. Apply the principles of metallic and non-metallic (including polymer composites) material selection and performance in the design and manufacturing of automotive structures
2. Design metallic and non-metallic products including composites (e.g. vehicle chassis, wheels, suspension, etc.). Judge the techniques used for the design, processing, assembly and testing of composite components.
3. Evaluate upcoming materials/structural technologies and their possible applications
4. Develop and validate finite element models (with respect to shape, mesh, contacts, materials law, etc) using modelling and simulation tools. Appraise finite element modelling and experimental results.
5. Optimise the designed product (with respect to lightweight, cost, performance, and safety margins properties) using modelling and simulation tools.
6. Propose crashworthiness concepts and estimate their influence on the vehicle structure.


Vehicle Dynamics, Ride and Handling

Module Leader
  • Dr Efstathios Velenis
Aim
    • To provide a fundamental understanding of vehicle dynamics as applied to wheeled vehicles.
    • To introduce students to the ride and handling, from requirements (subjective and objective) to analytical modelling and practical viewpoints.
    • To provide students with skills and knowledge to tackle dynamic aspects of vehicle design, development and testing including the impact of active chassis and driveline systems.
Syllabus

    The module will provide knowledge in vehicle dynamics ride and handling from subjective and objective requirements to analytical methods in developing passive ride and handling models.

    Core Vehicle Dynamics Topics:

    1. Vehicle Ride
    a. Objective and subjective assessment
    a. Ride modelling
    b. Terrain modelling

    2. Vehicle Handling
    a. Objective and subjective assessment
    b. Handling Modelling both steady-state and transient handling

    3. Tyre
    a. General tyre models
    b. Combined ride and handling
    c. Model with non-linear tyres

    4. Overview to active systems, including, but not restricted to; ABS, TCS and stability control



Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:
1. Evaluate the objective and subjective requirements for the vehicle dynamics ride and handling analysis and design.
2. Construct vehicle models using Matlab/Simulink and interpret the simulation results accordingly.
3. Demonstrate through the use of simplified vehicle dynamics models, an understanding of the fundamentals of vehicle ride and handling.
4. Critically evaluate different vehicle designs and modelling techniques in relation to vehicle ride and handling.

Vehicle Electrification and Hybridisation

Module Leader
  • Dr Amir Soltani
Aim

    The aim of this module is to empower the students with the capability to analysis, synthesis, and evaluate various technologies and integration challenges associated with the electric and hybrid vehicles. The module is structured to provide an in-depth knowledge and expertise for design and development of the main systems, components, architectures of the Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. The module includes case-studies of commercially available Hybrid and Electric vehicles and current research projects.

Syllabus
    Course content includes:
    • Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicles systems and powertrain architectures.
    • Introduction to Electric Motors, Power Electronics and Electric Drives, and Motor Control.
    • High voltage electrical architectures and the integration of power electronics systems
    • Automotive energy storage systems:
      o Batteries, ultracapacitors, flywheels and hydraulic accumulators
      o System design, integration and energy management
    • The integration of electrical machines and their electric drive systems
      o Technology options
      o System design and sizing
    • The mechanical integration of the hybrid propulsion system including the use of split-path transmissions
    • Energy Management and supervisory control for CO2 reduction, fuel saving, vehicle performance and driveability
    • The role of energy recovery systems including regenerative brake strategies and vehicle integration challenges
    • Modelling, simulation and analysis of Hybrid & Electric Vehicles and its sub-systems, using model based approach, including Mil, SiL, and HiL
    • Recent Electric and Hybrid vehicle technologies case studies

Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:
1. Evaluate the different Hybrid & Electric powertrain architecture options and be able to propose appropriate solutions within realistic performance, fuel economy, emission and commercial constraints.
2. Evaluate energy storage and energy management technology options for a hybrid or electric vehicle and be able to judge between different technologies relative to a given vehicle application and overall system design.
3. Demonstrate an ability to design and/or size different Hybrid and Electric Vehicle sub-systems, within the context of vehicle usage, weight, packaging, and range constraints.

Engine Simulation and Performance

Aim
    • To equip students with the necessary skills to evaluate the physical processes during the mixing of fuel and air and its subsequent combustion.
    • To provide students with sound knowledge of parameters leading to heat release and performance.
    • For students to understand the role of engine simulation and its impact on engine development.
    • To equip students with the ability to chose the correct engine for vehicle target market.
Syllabus

    Within the context of engine simulation and performance, the course content includes:

    • Port and valve flow
    • Flow and wave dynamics in the intake and exhaust systems
    • Supercharging and turbo-charging
    • The roles of engine simulation and engine testing in the development process
    • Engine simulation with Ricardo WAVE


Intended learning outcomes

In completing this course and receiving the associated award, a student should be able to:

  1. Identify and critically assess different engine technologies and their impact on performance
  2. Critically assess the main factors that lead to the formation of emissions during fuel combustion
  3. Evaluate and critically assess the role of air management in engines and its importance in engine technologies leading to reduction of CO2.



Vehicle Dynamics and Suspension Design

Module Leader
  • Dr Efstathios Velenis
Aim
    • To develop understanding of vehicle suspension and steering systems.
    • To provide a detailed, in particular ride and handling, from analytical, modelling and practical viewpoints.
    • To link understanding of vehicle dynamics, ride and handling to the practical implications for suspension and steering systems design.
    • To provide students with skills and knowledge to tackle dynamic aspects of vehicle design, development and testing.
Syllabus
    • Suspension system:
    o Types, typical designs and practical implications.
    o Kinematics, wheel motion control.
    o Forces transmitted; Analysing and dimensioning.
    o Materials and manufacturing methods.
    o Choice of spring rates.
    o Dampers.
    o Anti-roll bars.
    o Instantaneous centres of rotation, roll centres and roll axis.
    o Anti-dive and anti-squat.
    o Active systems.


    • Steering system:

    o Differential (Ackermann) effect; Steering kinematics.
    o Forces transmitted; Analysing and dimensioning.
    o Materials and manufacturing methods.
    o Bump and roll steer.
    o Compliance, interaction between bump, compliance and steer.
    o Power steering.
    o Steering/suspension systems interactions.
    o Active systems.

Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:

1. Analyse suspension and steering systems; their static, kinematic, dynamic, stress and deflection characteristics.
2. Generate and evaluate new designs at component, assembly and system level. Specify materials and manufacturing models.
3. Critically evaluate suspension and steering designs, using simplified models and state-of-the-art techniques.
4. Competently analyse and discuss with engineering practitioners the fundamentals of vehicle suspension and steering systems, their influence on ride and handling and demonstrate an understanding of the practical issues involved.

Fees and funding

European Union students applying for university places in the 2018 to 2019 academic year will still have access to student funding support. Please see the UK Government’s announcement (21 April 2017).

Cranfield University welcomes applications from students from all over the world for our postgraduate programmes. The Home/EU student fees listed continue to apply to EU students.


MSc Full-time £10,250

Fee notes:

  • The fees outlined apply to all students whose initial date of registration falls on or between 1 August 2019 and 31 July 2020.
  • All students pay the tuition fee set by the University for the full duration of their registration period agreed at their initial registration.
  • A non-refundable deposit is payable on offer acceptances and will be deducted from your overall tuition fee.  Home/EU Students will pay a £500 deposit.  Overseas Students will pay a £1,000 deposit.
  • Additional fees for extensions to the agreed registration period may be charged.
  • Fee eligibility at the Home/EU rate is determined with reference to UK Government regulations. As a guiding principle, EU nationals (including UK) who are ordinarily resident in the EU pay Home/EU tuition fees, all other students (including those from the Channel Islands and Isle of Man) pay Overseas fees.

MSc Full-time £20,500

Fee notes:

  • The fees outlined apply to all students whose initial date of registration falls on or between 1 August 2019 and 31 July 2020.
  • All students pay the tuition fee set by the University for the full duration of their registration period agreed at their initial registration.
  • A non-refundable deposit is payable on offer acceptances and will be deducted from your overall tuition fee.  Home/EU Students will pay a £500 deposit.  Overseas Students will pay a £1,000 deposit.
  • Additional fees for extensions to the agreed registration period may be charged.
  • Fee eligibility at the Home/EU rate is determined with reference to UK Government regulations. As a guiding principle, EU nationals (including UK) who are ordinarily resident in the EU pay Home/EU tuition fees, all other students (including those from the Channel Islands and Isle of Man) pay Overseas fees.

Funding Opportunities


To help students find and secure appropriate funding, we have created a funding finder where you can search for suitable sources of funding by filtering the results to suit your needs. Visit the funding finder.

Postgraduate Loan from Student Finance England
A Postgraduate Loan is now available for UK and EU applicants to help you pay for your Master’s course. You can apply for a loan at GOV.UK

Santander MSc Scholarship
The Santander Scholarship at Cranfield University is worth £5,000 towards tuition fees for full-time master's courses. Check the scholarship page to find out if you are from an eligible Santander Universities programme country.

Chevening Scholarships
Chevening Scholarships are awarded to outstanding emerging leaders to pursue a one-year master’s at Cranfield university. The scholarship includes tuition fees, travel and monthly stipend for Master’s study.

Cranfield Postgraduate Loan Scheme (CPLS)
The Cranfield Postgraduate Loan Scheme (CPLS) is a funding programme providing affordable tuition fee and maintenance loans for full-time UK/EU students studying technology-based MSc courses.

Commonwealth Scholarships for Developing Countries
Students from developing countries who would not otherwise be able to study in the UK can apply for a Commonwealth Scholarship which includes tuition fees, travel and monthly stipend for Master’s study.

Future Finance Student Loans
Future Finance offer student loans of up to £40,000 that can cover living costs and tuition fees for all student at Cranfield University.


Entry requirements

A first or second class UK Honours degree or equivalent in engineering, mathematics or an applied science and demonstrable motivation for a career in automotive.

Applicants who do not fulfil the standard entry requirements can apply for the Pre-Masters programme, successful completion of which will qualify them for entry to this course for a second year of study.

English Language

If you are an international student you will need to provide evidence that you have achieved a satisfactory test result in an English qualification. Our minimum requirements are as follows:

IELTS Academic – 6.5 overall
TOEFL – 92
Pearson PTE Academic – 65
Cambridge English Scale – 180
Cambridge English: Advanced - C
Cambridge English: Proficiency – C

In addition to these minimum scores you are also expected to achieve a balanced score across all elements of the test. We reserve the right to reject any test score if any one element of the test score is too low.

At the time of application prospective candidates must submit evidence demonstrating that they have achieved at least a minimum of IELTS 6.5 or equivalent. This is required when selecting applicants for interview. We can only accept tests taken within two years of your registration date (with the exception of Cambridge English tests which have no expiry date).

Students requiring a Tier 4 (General) visa must ensure they can meet the English language requirements set out by UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) and we recommend booking a IELTS for UKVI test.

Applicants who do not already meet the English language entry requirement for their chosen Cranfield course can apply to attend one of our Presessional English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses. We offer Winter/Spring and Summer programmes each year to offer holders.





Your career

Our postgraduate Automotive Engineering course provides you with the necessary skills for a career in the automotive industry. Cranfield’s automotive graduates have an excellent employment record and currently occupy positions of high responsibility in industry, such as managers of research establishments, chief engineers, engine and vehicle programme managers. Some of our graduates decide to continue their education through PhD studies with Cranfield University.

Companies that have recruited graduates of this course include:

  • Jaguar Land Rover
  • Lotus
  • Millbrook Proving Ground
  • McLaren
  • Ricardo.

We also arrange company visits and career open days with key employers.

How to apply

Online application form. UK students are normally expected to attend an interview and financial support is best discussed at this time. Overseas and EU students may be interviewed by telephone.