Areas of expertise
- Autonomous Systems
- Computing, Simulation & Modelling
- Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
- Instrumentation, Sensors and Measurement Science
- Mechatronics & Advanced Controls
- On-Road Vehicle Dynamics
- Systems Engineering
Dr Stefano Longo (MSc, PhD, SMIEEE, MIET, CEng, FHEA) received his MSc in Control Systems from the Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering at the University of Sheffield in 2007 and completed his PhD in Control Systems in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Bristol in 2011. His PhD thesis was awarded the prestigious Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Control and Automation Prize for significant achievements in the area of control engineering.
In November 2010, he was appointed for the position of Research Associate in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Imperial College London, where he worked in the intersection of the Control & Power, and Circuit & Systems Research Groups. He kept the position as Honorary Research Associate until 2016. He was appointed lecturer (Assistant Professor) at Cranfield University in 2012, promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2017, and to Reader (Associate Professor) in 2020.
His work and his research interests gravitate around the problem of designing and implementing advanced control and estimation algorithms in hardware, where the algorithm design and the hardware implementation are not seen as two separate and decoupled problems, but as a single interconnected one. These ideas have been applied to networked control systems (whilst at the University of Bristol), to parallelisable hardware for constrained optimal control and real-time optimisation (whilst at Imperial College London) and, more recently, to alternative powertrain and chassis control.
Since 2019, Dr Longo has taken the position of Head of Automotive at Embotech AG, an ETH spin-off company specialising in embedded optimisation with applications to autonoous driving.
Dr Longo’s main activities are research, teaching and consultancy.
Dr Longo’s research focuses on the area of optimisation-based control algorithm development and their implementation on
embedded hardware. His international reputation builds on the publication of over 80 research papers in international journals and conferences.
- MICRA "Veicolnet"
- Innovate UK CAV3 "AID-CAV"
- EPSRC CDT PhD studentship "Autonomous vehicle control for motion sickness minimisation"
- innovate UK CAV3 "CORAM"
- CAV2 Innovate UK “Project Alloyed”
- CAV2 Innovate UK project “HumanDRIVE”
- Innovate UK - ATI: "Zephyr Innovation Programme (ZIP)"
- Arrival: PhD studentship in "Optimisation and control of hybrid vehicles thermal management systems"
- Arrival - Cranfield: PhD studentship in "Optimisation and control of hybrid vehicle powertrains"
- EPSRC Global Challenge research fund “Hardware-in-the-loop test rig for dual energy source electric vehicles”
- EPSRC IAA project “Optimal thermal management of electric trucks batteries”
- Innovate UK - EPSRC: "Revolutionary Electric Vehicle Battery (REVB)" (2013-17, EP/L505298/1)
- EPSRC Global Challenge: "Development of a controllable DC-DC converter for dual energy source electric vehicles" (2016-17, EP/P510762/1)
- EPSRC: "Developing FUTURE Vehicles" (2012-16, EP/L505286/1)
- EPSRC IAA: "Reconfigurable test rig for electric vehicle powertrain optimisation" (2015, EP/K503927/1)
- Jaguar Land Rover: "Vehicle Localisation using GPS, INS, magnetometers and cameras" (2013-15)
Articles In Journals
- Stryszowski S, Longo S, D'Alessandro D, Velenis E, Forostovsky G & Manfredi S (2021) A framework for self-enforced optimal interaction between connected vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 22 (10) 6152-6161.
- Morganti MV, Longo S, Tirovic M, Blaise CY & Forostovsky G (2019) Multi-scale, electro-thermal model of NMC battery cell, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68 (11) 10594-10606.
- Propp K, Auger DJ, Fotouhi A, Marinescu M, Knap V & Longo S (2019) Improved state of charge estimation for lithium-sulfur batteries, Journal of Energy Storage, 26 (December) Article No. 100943. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranﬁeld.rd.c.3723934
- Fotouhi A, Propp K, Samaranayake L, Auger D J & Longo S (2018) A hardware-in-the-loop test rig for development of electric vehicle battery identification and state estimation algorithms, International Journal of Powertrains, 7 (1-3) 227-248. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.5687983
- Samaranayake L & Longo S (2018) Degradation control for electric vehicle machines using nonlinear model predictive control, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 26 (1) 89-101.
- Siampis E, Velenis E, Gariuolo S & Longo S (2018) A real-time nonlinear model predictive control strategy for stabilisation of an electric vehicle at the limits of handling, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 26 (6) Article No. 8061009 1982-1994.
- Fotouhi A, Auger D, Propp K & Longo S (2018) Lithium-sulfur battery state-of-charge observability analysis and estimation, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 33 (7) 5847-5859.
- Basrah MS, Siampis E, Velenis E, Cao DP & Longo S (2017) Wheel slip control with torque blending using linear and nonlinear model predictive control, Vehicle System Dynamics, 55 (11) 1665-1685.
- Propp K, Auger DJ, Fotouhi A, Longo S & Knap V (2017) Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries, Journal of Power Sources, 343 (March) 254-267. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.3834057
- Fotouhi A, Auger DJ, Propp K & Longo S (2017) Electric vehicle battery parameter identification and SOC observability analysis: NiMH and Li-S case studies, IET Power Electronics, 10 (11) 1289-1297.
- Fotouhi A, Auger DJ, Propp K, Longo S, Purkayastha R, O'Neill L & Walus S (2017) Lithium-Sulfur cell equivalent circuit network model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66 (9) 7711-7721.
- Tavernini D, Velenis E & Longo S (2017) Feedback brake distribution control for minimum pitch, Vehicle System Dynamics, 55 (6) 902-923.
- Abir J, Longo S, Morantz P & Shore P (2017) Virtual metrology frame technique for improving dynamic performance of a small size machine tool, Precision Engineering, 48 (April) 24-31.
- Propp K, Marinescu M, Auger DJ, O'Neill L, Fotouhi A, Somasundaram K, Offer GJ, Minton G, Longo S, Wild M & Knap V (2016) Multi-temperature state-dependent equivalent circuit discharge model for lithium-sulfur batteries, Journal of Power Sources, 328 (October) 289-299. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.c.3292031
- Suardi A, Longo S, Kerrigan E & Constantinides G (2016) Explicit MPC: Hard constraint satisfaction under low precision arithmetic, Control Engineering Practice, 47 (February) 60-69.
- Kampanakis A, Siampis E, Velenis E & Longo S (2016) A torque vectoring optimal control strategy for combined vehicle dynamics performance enhancement and electric motor ageing minimisation, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49 (1) 412-417.
- Amy T, Kong H, Auger D, Offer G & Longo S (2016) Regularized MPC for power management of hybrid energy storage systems with applications in electric vehicles, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49 (11) 265-270.
- Fotouhi A, Auger DJ, Propp K & Longo S (2016) Accuracy versus simplicity in online battery model identification, IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics: Systems, 48 (2) 195-206. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.3545847.v1
- Abir J, Morantz P, Longo S & Shore P (2016) A novel accelerometer based feedback concept for improving machine dynamic performance, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49 (21) 553-558.
- Fotouhi A, Auger DJ, Propp K, Longo S & Wild M (2016) A review on electric vehicle battery modelling: From Lithium-ion toward Lithium–Sulphur, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56 (April) 1008-1021.
- Abir J, Longo S, Morantz P & Shore P (2016) Optimized estimator for real-time dynamic displacement measurement using accelerometers, Mechatronics, 39 (November) 1-11.
- Fotouhi A, Auger DJ, Propp K & Longo S (2016) A study on battery model parametrisation problem: application-oriented trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49 (11) 48-53.
- Liu Y, Schijndel J, Longo S & Kerrigan E (2015) UAV energy extraction with incomplete atmospheric data using MPC, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 51 (2) 1203-1215.
- Siampis E, Velenis E & Longo S (2015) Rear wheel torque vectoring model predictive control with velocity regulation for electric vehicles, Vehicle System Dynamics, 53 (11) 1555-1579.
- Longo S, Kerrigann EC & Constantinides GA (2014) Constrained LQR for Low-Precision Data Representation, Automatica, 50 (1) 162-168.
- Longo S, Auger DJ & Assadian F (2014) Mechatronics in Sustainable Mobility: Two Electric Vehicle Applications, Journal of Sustainable Mobility, 1 (1) 19-36.
- Auger DJ, Maxime FG, Mohan G, Longo S & Assadian F (2014) Impact of battery ageing on an electric vehicle powertrain optimisation, Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 2 (4) 350-361.
- Suardi A, Longo S, Kerrigan EC & Constantinides GA (2014) Robust explicit MPC design under finite precision arithmetic, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 47 (3) 2939-2944.
- Papazoglou A, Longo S, Auger D & Assadian F (2014) Nonlinear filtering techniques comparison for battery state estimation, Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 2 (3) 259-269.
- Mohan G, Assadian F & Longo S (2013) An Optimization Framework for Comparative Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Powertrains, Energies, 6 (10) 5507-5537.
- Lee D, Longo S & Kerrigan E (2012) Predictive control for soaring of unpowered autonomous UAVs, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 45 (17) 194-199.
- Kerrigan E, Jerez J, Longo S & Constantinides GA (2012) Number representation in predictive control, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 45 (17) 60-67.
- Su TL, Longo S, Herrmann G & Barber P (2012) Computation of an optimal communication schedule in a nonlinear networked control system using sum-of-squares, Systems and Control Letters, 61 (3) 387-396.
- Longo S, Herrmann G & Barber P (2012) Robust Scheduling of Sampled-Data Networked Control Systems, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 20 (6) 1613-1621.
- Longo S, Kerrigan EC, Ling KV & Constantinides GA (2011) A parallel formulation for predictive control with nonuniform hold constraints, Annual Reviews in Control, 35 (2) 207-214.
- Longo S, Herrmann G & Barber P (2010) Stabilisability and detectability in networked control, IET Control Theory and Applications, 4 (9) 1612-1626.
- Longo S, Herrmann G & Barber P (2009) Controllability, observability in networked control, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 42 (6) 295-300.
- Longo S, Herrmann G & Barber P (2009) Optimization approaches for controller and schedule codesign in networked control, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 42 (6) 301-306.
- Li B, Lin C, Siampis E, Longo S & Velenis E (2021) Integrated Path-tracking and Control Allocation Controller for Autonomous Electric Vehicle under Limit Handling Condition. In: 2020 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Las Vegas, NV, 19 October - 13 November 2020.
- Htike Z, Papaioannou G, Siampis E, Velenis E & Longo S (2021) Minimisation of Motion Sickness in Autonomous Vehicles. In: 2020 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Las Vegas, NV, 19 October - 13 November 2020.
- Stryszowski M, Longo S, Velenis E & Shah RM (2018) Energy and time-optimal connected autonomous vehicle interaction: cruising and overtaking. In: 2018 European Control Conference, Limassol, 12-15 June 2018.
- Zarkadis K, Velenis E, Siampis E & Longo S (2018) Predictive torque vectoring control with active trail-braking. In: 18th European Control Conference 2018, (ECC18), Limassol, 12-15 June 2018.
- Basrah MS, Siampis E, Velenis E, Cao D & Longo S (2016) Integration of torque blending and slip control using real-time nonlinear model predictive control. In: 13th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, AVEC'16, Munich, 13-16 September 2016.
- Fotouhi A, Propp K, Samaranayake L, Auger DJ & Longo S. (2016) Electric vehicle battery management algorithm development using a HIL simulator incorporating three-phase machines and power electronics. In: 3rd Biennial International Conference on Powertrain Modelling and Control: Testing, Mapping and Calibration (PMC 2016), Loughborough, 7-9 September 2016.
- Siampis E, Velenis E & Longo S (2016) Front-to-rear torque vectoring Model Predictive Control for terminal understeer mitigation. In: 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, Graz, 17-21 August 2015.
- Tavernini D, Velenis E & Longo S (2016) Model-based active brake force distribution for pitch angle minimization. In: 2015 IEEE 54th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Osaka, 15-18 December 2015.
- Siampis E, Velenis E & Longo S (2016) Predictive rear wheel torque vectoring control with terminal understeer mitigation using nonlinear estimation. In: 2015 IEEE 54th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Osaka, 15-18 December 2015.
- A Fotouhi, DJ Auger, K Propp & S Longo (2016) Electric vehicle battery parameter identification and SOC observability analysis: NiMH and Li-S case studies. In: 8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2016), Glasgow, 19-21 April 2016.
- Fotouhi A, Shateri N, Auger DJ, Longo S, Propp K, Purkayastha R & Wild M (2016) A MATLAB graphical user interface for battery design and simulation; from cell test data to real-world automotive simulation. In: 2016 13th International Conference on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods and Applications to Circuit Design (SMACD), Lisbon, 27-30 June 2016.
- Abir J, Morantz P, Longo S & Shore P (2016) An accelerometer based-feedback technique for improving dynamic performance of a machine tool. In: 16th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (EUSPEN), Nottingham, 30 May - 3 June 2016.
- Fotouhi A, Auger DJ, Cleaver T, Shateri N, Propp K & Longo S (2016) Influence of battery capacity on performance of an electric vehicle fleet. In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), Birmingham, 20-23 November 2016.
- Siampis E, Velenis E & Longo S (2015) Model Predictive torque vectoring control for electric vehicles near the limits of handling. In: 2015 European Control Conference, ECC 2015, Linz, 15-17 July 2015.
- Al-Jazaeri AO, Samaranayake L, Longo S & Auger DJ (2015) Fuzzy logic control for energy saving in autonomous electric vehicles. In: 2014 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), Florence, 17-19 June 2015.
- Samaranayake L & Longo S (2015) Cost functions for degradation control of electric motors in electric vehicles. In: 2015 European Control Conference, ECC 2015, Linz, 15-17 July 2015.
- Balakrishnnan VK, Longo S, Velenis E & Barber P (2014) Sensor configurations and testbed for vehicle state estimation. In: UKACC International Conference on Control (CONTROL 2014), Loughborough, 9-11 July 2014.
- Feig P, Billitteri F, Longo S & Auger DJ (2014) Sensors-models trade-offs in battery state estimation. In: 5th IET Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Conference (HEVC 2014), London, 5-6 November 2014.
- Fotouhi A, Auger DJ, Propp K & Longo S (2014) Simulation for prediction of vehicle efficiency, performance, range and lifetime: a review of current techniques and their applicability to current and future testing standards. In: 5th IET Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Conference (HEVC 2014), London, 5-6 November 2014.
- Mohan G, Assadian F & Longo S (2014) Comparative Analysis of Multiple Powertrain Architectures based on a Novel Optimization Framework. In: SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition, Michigan, 8-10 April 2014.
- Auger DJ, Groff MF, Mohan G, Longo S & Assadian F (2013) The impact of battery ageing on an electric vehicle powertrain optimisation. In: 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES 2013), Dubrovnik, 22-27 September 2013.
- Papazoglou A, Longo S, Auger DJ & Assadian F (2013) Computational Aspects of Estimation Algorithms for Battery-Management Systems. In: 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES 2013), Dubrovnik, 22 September 2013.
- Liu Y, Longo S & Kerrigan EC (2013) Nonlinear predictive control of autonomous soaring UAVs using 3DOF models. In: European Control Conference (ECC'13), 2013, Zurich, 16 July 2013.
- Longo S, Kerrigan EC & Constantinides GA (2013) A predictive control solver for low-precision data representation. In: European Control Conference (ECC'13), 2013, Zurich, 16 July 2013.
- Suardi A, Longo S, Kerrigan EC & Constantinides GA (2013) Energy-aware MPC co-design for DC-DC converters. In: European Control Conference (ECC'13), 2013, Zurich, 16 July 2013.
- Mohan G, Assadian F & Longo S (2013) Comparative analysis of forward-facing models vs backward-facing models in powertrain component sizing. In: IET 4th Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Conference (HEVC13), 2013, London, 6-8 November 2013.
- Su T, Longo S, Na J, Herrmann G & Fan N (2012) Concept for hybrid optimization for schedule design in nonlinear networked control. In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2012, Hangzhou, 28-31 May 2012.
- Su T, Longo S, Na J, Herrmann G & Fan N (2012) Robustness-verification in networked control systems via sum-of-square approach. In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2012, Hangzhou, 28-31 May 2012.
- Longo S, Kerrigan EC, Ling KV & Constantinides GA (2011) Parallel move blocking model predictive control. In: 50th IEEE Decision and Control and European Control Conference, 2011, Orlando, 12-15 December 2011.
- Zheng D, Na J, Ren X, Herrmann G & Longo S (2011) Adaptive Control of Robotic Servo System with Friction Compensation. In: IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM), 2011, Qingdao, 17 September 2011.
- Longo S, Su T, Herrmann G, Barber P & Gerlinger U (2011) Scheduling of the FlexRay static segment for robust controller integration. In: IEEE International Conference on Control Applications (CCA), 2011, Denver, CO, 28-30 September 2011.
- Longo S, Herrmann G & Barber P (2010) Robust controller scheduling in automotive communication networks. In: 10th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control (AVEC 10), Loughborough, 22 August 2010.
- Longo S, Herrmann G & Barber P (2009) Optimal scheduling methods for time-triggered networked control. In: International Conference on Systems Engineering 2009 (ICSE2009), Coventry, 10 August 2009.
- Auger DJ, Fotouhi A, Propp K & Longo S (2019) Battery management systems – state estimation for lithium-sulfur batteries. In: Lithium-sulfur batteries, Wiley, p. 249-272.
- Fotouhi A, Propp K, Auger DJ & Longe S (2018) State of charge and state of health estimation over the battery lifespan. In: Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles, Springer International Publishing, p. 267-288, ed. 1.
- Longo S, Su T, Herrmann G & Barber P (2013) Optimal and Robust Scheduling for Networked Control Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press.