This PgCert covers a selection of Electronic Warfare topics relevant to military systems, covering the specification, analysis, development, procurement, and technical management of military radar, electro-optics and infrared sensor systems.

At a glance

  • Start dateSeptember
  • DurationUp to 3 years part-time
  • DeliveryLectures, laboratory demonstrations, tutorials and visits to outside organisations
  • QualificationPgCert
  • Study typePart-time

Who is it for?

This PgCert has been designed for officers of the Armed Forces and for scientists and technical officers in government defence establishments and the defence industry.

Graduates achieve a high level of understanding and detailed knowledge of military communications and sensor systems with particular regard to electronic warfare.

Why this course?

The main focus of the course, being Electronic Warfare in relation to sensor systems, requires a good understanding of these systems before going on to consider how to defend them from electronic attack or intercept.

Course details

PgCert students must complete a taught phase consisting of six specified modules. The course is delivered via lectures, laboratory demonstrations and tutorials. The teaching of the modules is reinforced by visits to relevant outside organisations and scheduled outside of teaching periods.

Assessment

Lectures, laboratory demonstrations, tutorials and visits to outside organisations

University Disclaimer

Keeping our courses up-to-date and current requires constant innovation and change. The modules we offer reflect the needs of business and industry and the research interests of our staff and, as a result, may change or be withdrawn due to research developments, legislation changes or for a variety of other reasons. Changes may also be designed to improve the student learning experience or to respond to feedback from students, external examiners, accreditation bodies and industrial advisory panels.

To give you a taster, we have listed the compulsory modules and (where applicable) some elective modules affiliated with this programme which ran in the academic year 2017–2018. There is no guarantee that these modules will run for 2018 entry. All modules are subject to change depending on your year of entry.

Compulsory modules
All the modules in the following list need to be taken as part of this course

Electromagnetic Propagation and Devices

Aim

    To provide the students with an understanding of electromagnetic propagation, antennas and devices relevant to military sensor, communications and electronic warfare systems.

Syllabus
    • Course introduction: course structure, aims and objectives
    • Information resources: computer centre, library, information retrieval
    • Propagation: radio propagation: reflection, refraction, multipath, fading, attenuation, ionosphere, troposcatter, anomalous propagation
    • Antennae: fundamental antenna concepts and definitions, VSWR, radiation patterns, directivity, gain, polarisation, axial ratio, EIRP, effective aperture, noise temperature, etc.
    • Overview of antenna types for: communications and radar applications including wire antennae, aperture antennae, reflector antennae, low profile and microstrip antennae
    • Antenna arrays: introduction to phased array theory, types of antenna array, feed network design, beam steering and radiation pattern shaping
    • Performance trade-offs: effect of radome and FSS covers system design impact on sensor and communications systems
    • Electromagnetic devices: high power tubes (Magnetron, coaxial magnetron, Klystron, Extended Interaction Klystron,TWT)
    • Active solid state devices: rf diodes and transistors and their application in amplifiers and oscillators, ferrite non-reciprocal devices (circulators and isolators)
    • PIN diode switches, modulators and phase shifters
    • Guided waves: waveguides, coaxial lines, microstrip and other RF planar transmission line structures
    • RF/Microwave power dividers and couplers
    • IS strategy.

Intended learning outcomes On successful completion of the module the student will be able to:

  • Describe the principles of operation and characteristics of antenna sensors and electromagnetic system components and recognise how they may be used in a modern military communication or EW system
  • Identify and explain the various models of propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space and transmission lines
  • Analyse and evaluate the performance of electronic warfare system components
  • Assess the propagation of electromagnetic signals in physical environments
  • Design antenna elements and develop phased arrays performance models implemented in Matlab.

Signal Processing, Statistics and Analysis

Aim

    To provide the students with an understanding of the subjects supporting the specialist modules and to provide them with the essential signal analysis and statistical tools used in the course.

Syllabus
    • Statistics and Noise: Probability, random variables, probability distributions, covariance, correlation. Noise sources, noise bandwidth, noise figure, noise temperature. Cascaded networks. Mathematical representation of noise
    • Analogue and Digital Signal Processing 1: Analogue methods used to describe, analyse and process signals and the behaviour of systems: Fourier and Laplace transforms, correlation and convolution, impulse response and transfer function.
    • Analogue and Digital Signal Processing 2: Matched filters, the z-transform. Advantages/ disadvantages of DSP, sampling and quantisation, digital filters, DFT and FFT, DSP applications in communications and radar.
    • Decision Theory: Hypothesis testing, probabilities of false alarm and detection, Bayesian systems, error probability and bit error rate, receiver operating characteristics. Bit-error rate lab demo.
Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of the module the student will be able to:

  • Describe the signal processing methods commonly encountered in sensor, communications and EW systems
  • Evaluate the effect of randomly varying signals on the decision processing in sensor and communication systems
  • Identify and analyse signal and noise waveforms commonly encountered in communications, sensor and electronic warfare systems in the time and frequency domains
  • Analyse the detection performance of such systems.

Radar Principles

Aim

    To provide the students with an understanding of the fundamental principles, design and analysis of advanced radar systems.

Syllabus
    • Introduction: comparison with other sensors, frequency bands, relationship between size, wavelength and range ,target data, historical notes
    • Radar detection theory: radar range equation, Pd, Pfa and SNR relationships, FAR, No. hits, Integration (quadrature detection)
    • Pulsed Radar Parameters: PRF, pulse width, duty ratio, peak and average powers, min range, eclipsing, max unambiguous range, low PRF, spectrum of pulsed radar, signal bandwidth, matched reception, range resolution. Search radar application
    • Losses: effect of clear air, precipitation, multipath; Losses associated with radar system, including the antenna (beam-shape loss)
    • CW and FM ranging: The Doppler effect, Doppler sensing, clutter rejection, Doppler filtering/velocity gating. Two phase linear saw-tooth modulation, ranging, effect of Doppler, velocity and range measurement. Missile seeker
    • Radar cross-section: principal factors; surface reflection effects; forms of scattering; echo mechanisms; variation of RCS with angle; typical values; Swerling models
    • Pulse compression: frequency coding (FMOP); Phase coding (PMOP); matched filtering; range and velocity resolution; Compressed pulse width; Range-velocity coupling
    • Clutter: surface and volume backscatter coefficient; spatial and temporal variation; estimation of clutter return and signal-to-clutter ratio for volume and surface clutter; statistical description for clutter; clutter spectrum and de-correlation time
    • CFAR: Constant false alarm rate systems; Clutter statistics and CFAR performance
    • Pulse-doppler radar: principle of operation; clutter spectrum; characteristics of HPRF and MPRF systems; FMICW in range measurement; multiple PRFs in range measurement. Airborne early-warning radar: requirements; design drivers and solution; typical parameters. Battlefield surveillance radar: requirements; system design; unambiguous range and velocity measurement
    • MTI radar: System diagram; clutter rejection by single and double delay line cancellers; blind speed
    • GMTI: MTI from an airborne platform, target measurement accuracy in range and in angle; clutter Doppler spread Tracking Radar. Monopulse and conical scan angle- trackers; range and velocity gates for range and Doppler tracking; angle-tracking errors; track-while-scan systems; continuity tracking
    • Synthetic-aperture radar: Cross range resolution, unfocussed SAR, focussed SAR, array length, array processing, resolution, Doppler Beam
Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of the module the student will be able to:

  • Identify the principles underlying radar detection in noise and clutter, relating these principles to conventional radar system design
  • Explain the specialist properties and particular operational advantages of modern multi-function radar and SAR systems
  • Critically evaluate the detection performance of a radar system, given its design parameters
  • Produce a viable radar system design, given a suitable specification of the required radar performance
  • Generate and analyse radar waveforms and target echoes with Matlab.

Radar Electronic Warfare

Aim

    To provide the students with an understanding of the principles, design and analysis of the electronic threats to radar systems and how radar systems may be protected.

Syllabus
    • Radar ES: Operational use; Calculation of ES sensitivity; The radar/ES detection battle; The requirements for a quiet radar; The ES process; Observable parameters; Antenna configurations for AOA measurement; Probability of intercept; Intercept analysis; Signal Sorting
    • Radar EA: Jamming techniques and strategies; SJNR calculations; range-gate and velocity-gate pull-off; angle deception against monopulse trackers; deception and decoy techniques; DRFMs
    • Radar ED: Frequency and PRF agility; polarisation diversity; power management; sidelobe suppression; dual-band technique
    • Stealth: Reduction of RCS using shaping: elimination of corner reflectors, flat surfaces, horizontal surfaces, deflection of radar echo into a vertical direction; Radar Absorbent Material, smart surfaces
    • Low probability of intercept radar waveforms: Power management, wideband FM, PSK: pseudo-random phase coding (maximal length sequences), poly-phase coding (Frank, P1, 2, 3, 4 codes), FSK: frequency hopping (Costas sequences), hybrid approaches
    • Jamming of SAR systems: Principles of SAR Jamming
    • Anti-Radiation Missile Seekers: ARM operational modes and impact on seeker, monopulse seeker design, detection ranges, example designs
    • Microwave directed energy weapons: Principles of operation, hardware architectures.
Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of the module the student will be able to:

  • Use concepts of sensitivity, resolution and discrimination to establish the capabilities and applications of receivers used in ES
  • Outline the various electronic attack and associated defence measures applicable to modern radar systems
  • Identify the role and quantify the performance of a modern radar system, given suitable data regarding its transmissions
  • Select and assess appropriate electronic defence measures against specified threats, given an operational specification.

Electro-Optics and Infrared Systems 1

Aim

    To introduce the student to the field of Electro-Optics (EO) and Infrared (IR) technology and give an understanding the underlying principles. To give an appreciation of the likely future advances in the technology and the importance of EO/IR technology in the wider defence system.

Syllabus
    • Simple radiometry and power calculations
    • Signature generation (solid and gaseous)
    • Contrast
    • Atmospheric effects
    • Optical systems
    • Detector type (thermal, photon, one and two dimensional arrays, fibre sensors)
    • Cooling requirements
    • Detector performance characteristics
    • Simple electronic processing
    • Display options
    • EO/IR seeker systems
    • Countermeasures (including stealth) 
    • Counter-countermeasures
    • Digital image processing.
Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of the module the student will be able to:

  • Describe EO/IR systems and the underlying principles and technology
  • Analyse the significance of the EO/IR system in the defence context
  • Assess the performance of EO/IR systems.

Electro-Optics and Infrared Systems 2

Aim

    Increase the depth of knowledge in the field of EO/IR technology and give an understanding of the underlying principles. Give an appreciation of the likely future advances in the technology and the importance of this technology in the wider defence system.

Syllabus
    • Advanced radiometry and power calculations
    • Modulation transfer function
    • Minimum resolvable temperature difference
    • Advanced fibre sensors
    • Advanced digital image processing
    • Laser systems (principles and applications)
    • Laser directed energy weapons
    • Laser countermeasures.
Intended learning outcomes

On successful completion of the module the student will be able to:

  • Describe EO/IR systems and the underlying principles and technology
  • Analyse the significance of the EO/IR system in the defence context
  • Assess the performance of EO/IR systems.

Fees and funding

European Union students applying for university places in the 2019 to 2020 academic year will still have access to student funding support. Please see the UK Government’s announcement (24 July 2018).

Cranfield University welcomes applications from students from all over the world for our postgraduate programmes. The Home/EU student fees listed continue to apply to EU students.




PgCert Part-time £10,550 *
  • * Fees can be paid in full up front, or in equal annual instalments, up to a maximum of two payments per year; first payment on or before registration and the second payment six months after the course start date. Students who complete their course before the initial end date will be invoiced the outstanding fee balance and must pay in full prior to graduation.

Fee notes:

  • The fees outlined apply to all students whose initial date of registration falls on or between 1 August 2018 and 31 July 2019.
  • All students pay the tuition fee set by the University for the full duration of their registration period agreed at their initial registration.
  • For self-funded applicants a non-refundable £500 deposit is payable on offer acceptance and will be deducted from your overall tuition fee.
  • Additional fees for extensions to the agreed registration period may be charged.
  • Fee eligibility at the Home/EU rate is determined with reference to UK Government regulations. As a guiding principle, EU nationals (including UK) who are ordinarily resident in the EU pay Home/EU tuition fees, all other students (including those from the Channel Islands and Isle of Man) pay Overseas fees.
PgCert Part-time £10,550 *
  • * Fees can be paid in full up front, or in equal annual instalments, up to a maximum of two payments per year; first payment on or before registration and the second payment six months after the course start date. Students who complete their course before the initial end date will be invoiced the outstanding fee balance and must pay in full prior to graduation.

Fee notes:

  • The fees outlined apply to all students whose initial date of registration falls on or between 1 August 2018 and 31 July 2019.
  • All students pay the tuition fee set by the University for the full duration of their registration period agreed at their initial registration.
  • For self-funded applicants a non-refundable £500 deposit is payable on offer acceptance and will be deducted from your overall tuition fee.
  • Additional fees for extensions to the agreed registration period may be charged.
  • Fee eligibility at the Home/EU rate is determined with reference to UK Government regulations. As a guiding principle, EU nationals (including UK) who are ordinarily resident in the EU pay Home/EU tuition fees, all other students (including those from the Channel Islands and Isle of Man) pay Overseas fees.

Funding Opportunities

Postgraduate Loan from Student Finance England 
A Postgraduate Loan is now available for UK and EU applicants to help you pay for your Master’s course. You can apply for a loan at GOV.UK

Future Finance Student Loans
Future Finance offer student loans of up to £40,000 that can cover living costs and tuition fees for all student at Cranfield University.

Please contact cdsadmissionsoffice@cranfield.ac.uk for more information on funding.


Entry requirements

A first or second class honours degree or equivalent in an appropriate discipline (normally electronics, electrical engineering or physics). Alternatively, a lesser qualification with relevant professional experience may be acceptable.

English Language

If you are an international student you will need to provide evidence that you have achieved a satisfactory test result in an English qualification. The minimum standard expected from a number of accepted courses are as follows:

In addition to these minimum scores you are also expected to achieve a balanced score across all elements of the test. We reserve the right to reject any test score if any one element of the test score is too low.

We can only accept tests taken within two years of your registration date (with the exception of Cambridge English tests which have no expiry date).

Students requiring a Tier 4 (General) visa must ensure they can meet the English language requirements set out by UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) and we recommend booking a IELTS for UKVI test.

Security clearance for Shrivenham

Some Cranfield University courses are delivered at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham which is a Ministry of Defence (MOD) site. All applicants to courses that are wholly or partially delivered at Shrivenham must complete the BPSS (HMG Baseline Personnel Security Standard V4 April 2014) prior to registration on the course or must already hold a security clearance to this level or higher.

Please visit our security clearance page for further information.


Your career

Successful graduates of this course should be fully equipped for roles in defence intelligence, systems development and acquisition, involving the specification and analysis of such systems; and working individually or as part of a team either in the military or in the defence industry. 

Applying

Applicants may be invited to attend an interview. Applicants based outside of the UK may be interviewed either by telephone or video conference.

Apply now