Contact Professor Stephen Hallett
Areas of expertise
- Applied Informatics
- Carbon, Climate and Risk
- Digital Agriculture
- Energy and the Environment
- Environmental Impacts
- Monitoring and Environmental Informatics
- Natural Capital
- Soil Resources
Professor Hallett’s research focuses on developing the scientific understanding of environmental risks and challenges relating to land resource management in the natural and built environment and understanding the role and opportunity data science and digital technologies offer in addressing research and development. Professor Hallett’s leadership has contributed to securing significant research funding, with work centring on natural ecosystems, agriculture and infrastructure and understanding the impact of a changing climate. His work draws on expertise in environmental big data, analytics, decision support, GIS/remote sensing, software development, 3D data visualisation, virtual/augmented reality, and geospatial decision-support systems applied across four strategic themes: (1) Agricultural and Environmental Informatics; (2) Soil and Land Resource Management; (3) Geohazards and Urban Infrastructure; and (4) Environmental Risk Mitigation and Climate Change. He is widely published and cited internationally and has supervised many PhD students.
Professor Hallett’s research, development and innovation capitalises on his established networks with the Research Council, Innovate UK and other universities; industrial networks across the environmental, utility and financial sectors; engagement with Defra, UK ministries and local government and international networks.
Professor Hallett recently served on secondment as Associate Director, Digital Environment, Infrastructure and Data within NERC. In this role he helped shape and influence a number of digital initiatives including the Environmental Data Service and the Digital Solutions programme. His work contributed to the publication of NERCs first Digital Strategy. Stephen continues his work with NERC as a member of the Digital Research and Infrastructure (DRIG) group.
Professor Hallett is one of the two UKRI/NERC ‘Digital Environment Champions’ within the NERC ‘Constructing a Digital Environment’ programme. This work involves providing leadership for the development and application of digital approaches in environmental science.
Stephen is a Co-Investigator and Governing Board member of the DAFNI ROSE project (Data & Analytics Facility for National Infrastructure) (http://www.dafni.ac.uk) within the UK Collaboratorium for Research on Infrastructure & Cities (UKCRIC), supported by EPSRC, with an interest in data ontologies and digital twinning themes.
Stephen is Director and Centre Champion of the NERC/ESRC 'DREAM' Centre for Doctoral Training in big data and environmental risk (http://www.dream-cdt.ac.uk). He is also the Cranfield lead and point of contact for the NERC 'CENTA2' Doctoral Training Partnership (http://www.centa.org.uk).
Stephen also has a responsibility for Cranfield's national Land Information System (LandIS) [Defra SP1608], containing comprehensive soil and related near-earth environmental information for England and Wales (http://www.landis.org.uk).
Stephen is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (SFHEA) teaching on the Cranfield MSc in ‘Geographical Information Management’ (GIM).
Selected research projects across UK and EU funding agencies include: ‘CINITDIEN - Championing INnovation In The DIgital ENvironment’ [NE/S016287/1]; GCRF ‘Tackling precision nutrient management in developing countries using geospatial and in-field technology: Case study Kenya’; European Commission Joint Research Centre project ‘Collection of soil data in SOTER format from 14 Danube strategy countries, at scale 1:250 000’ [JRC/IPR/2017/D.3/0002/OC]; Satellites for Food Precision Soil Mapping [NERC NE/P008860/1]; FOWARIM (Fostering Water-Agriculture Research and Innovation in Malta) [H2020-TWINN-2 (692162)]; Optimising Big Data to Drive Sustainable Agricultural Intensification - Soil-for-Life [BBSRC BB/M011860/1]; Enhancing nutrient use efficiency from biosolids for a resilient crop production system [NERC NE/M012794/1]; Community Response to Extreme Weather Events (CREW) [EPSRC EP/F036795/1]; Development of a Horticultural Soil Management Information System (SMIS) [AHDB CP107d/3110107425]; Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium [EPSRC EP/I01344X/1]; Irish Soil Information System [European Environmental Protection Agency STRIVE 2007-S-CD-S1]; Ecosystem Services Databank and Visualisation for Terrestrial Informatics [NERC NE/L012774/1]; Farming Truth [European Space Agency ESTEC A0/1- 6124/09/NL/US].
Stephen also runs Soil-Net (http://www.soil-net.com) - an environmental educational resource for school students and teachers, serving soils information to over a million users worldwide. He also leads Cranfield's 'World Soil Survey Archive and Catalogue' project (WOSSAC) (http://www.wossac.com) - a unique global environmental archive pertaining to soils and soil resources. WOSSAC was instrumental in Cranfield being awarded the 2017 Queens Anniversary Award for Soil Science.
Over many years, Stephen Hallett has worked with a wide range of clients and research sponsors, including:
- Alexander Forbes Ltd.
- Anglian Water Ltd.
- Atkins Ltd.
- British Society of Soil Science (BSSS)
- Coastal Partnership East
- Environment Agency (EA)
- European Environment Agency (EEA)
- European Space Agency (ESA)
- Hampshire County Council (HCC)
- Heath Lambert Ltd.
- HTSPE Ltd.
- Innovate UK
- Jaguar Landrover
- Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission
- Legal and General Ltd.
- Network Rail
- Opportunity Peterborough, Peterborough City Council
- Severn Trent Water Ltd.
- Suffolk District Council
- Teagasc, Ireland
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
- United Utilities Ltd.
- Yorkshire Water Ltd.
Articles In Journals
- Hammond EB, Coulon F, Hallett SH, Thomas R, Hardy D & Beriro DJ (2023) Digital tools for brownfield redevelopment: Stakeholder perspectives and opportunities, Journal of Environmental Management, 325, Part A, (January) Article No. 116393.
- Stanitsa A, Hallett SH & Jude S (2023) Investigating pedestrian behaviour in urban environments: a Wi-Fi tracking and machine learning approach, Multimodal Transportation, 2 (1) Article No. 100049.
- Stanitsa A, Hallett SH & Jude S (2022) The challenges of implementing evidence-based strategies to inform building and urban design decisions: a view from current practice, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Available online 15 August 2022.
- Stanitsa A, Hallett S & Jude S (2022) Investigating key factors influencing decision-making in the design of buildings and places: a survey of stakeholders’ perception, Architecture, Structures and Construction, Available online 17 August 2022.
- Barton NA, Hallett SH, Jude SR & Tran TH (2022) Predicting the risk of pipe failure using gradient boosted decision trees and weighted risk analysis, npj Clean Water, 5 (1) Article No. 22.
- Barton NA, Hallett SH, Jude SR & Tran TH (2022) An evolution of statistical pipe failure models for drinking water networks: a targeted review, Water Supply, 22 (4) 3784-3813.
- Mead MI, Bevilacqua M, Loiseaux C, Hallett SH, Jude S, Emmanouilidis C, Harris J, Leinster P, Mutnuri S, Tran TH & Williams L (2022) Generalised network architectures for environmental sensing: case studies for a digitally enabled environment, Array, 14 (July) Article No. 100168.
- Barton NA, Hallett SH & Jude SR (2022) The challenges of predicting pipe failures in clean water networks: a view from current practice, Water Supply, 22 (1) 527-541.
- Golicz K, Sakrabani R & Hallett SH (2021) Novel procedure for testing of soil field test kits involving paper strips, Soil Use and Management, 37 (3) 607-617. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.11193668
- Abu-Bakar H, Williams L & Hallett SH (2021) An empirical water consumer segmentation and the characterisation of consumption patterns underpinning demand peaks, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 174 (November) Article No. 105792.
- Abu-Bakar H, Williams L, Hallett & SH (2021) Quantifying the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on household water consumption patterns in England, npj Clean Water, 4 (1) Article No. 13.
- Chiu CY, Baillie I, Jien SH, Hallett L & Hallett S (2021) Sequestration of P fractions in the soils of an incipient ferralisation chronosequence on a humid tropical volcanic island, Botanical Studies, 62 (1) Article No. 20.
- Abu-Bakar H, Williams L & Hallett SH (2021) A review of household water demand management and consumption measurement, Journal of Cleaner Production, 292 (April) Article No. 125872.
- Hammond EB, Coulon F, Hallett SH, Thomas R, Hardy D, Kingdon A & Beriro DJ (2021) A critical review of decision support systems for brownfield redevelopment, Science of the Total Environment, 785 (September) Article No. 147132.
- Baillie IC, Floyd CN, Hallett SH & Andrews R (2021) Topographic zonation and polycyclic pedogenesis in the northern atolls of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean, Geoderma Regional, 26 (September) Article No. e00391.
- Golicz K, Hallett SH & Sakrabani R (2021) Old problem, the Millennial solution: Using mobile technology to inform decision making for sustainable fertilizer management, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 49 (April) 26-32.
- Borden RW, Brammer H, Baillie IC & Hallett SH (2021) The contributions of C. F. Charter to tropical soil survey and classification, CATENA, 197 (February) Article No. 104957.
- D’Agostino D, Borg M, Hallett SH, Sakrabani RS, Thompson A, Papadimitriou L & Knox JW (2020) Multi-stakeholder analysis to improve agricultural water management policy and practice in Malta, Agricultural Water Management, 229 (February) Article No. 105920.
- Golicz K, Hallett S, Sakrabani R & Ghosh J (2020) Adapting smartphone app used in water testing, for soil nutrient analysis, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 175 (August) Article No. 105532. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.9328814
- Barton NA, Farewell TS & Hallett SH (2020) Using generalized additive models to investigate the environmental effects on pipe failure in clean water networks, npj Clean Water, 3 (1) Article No. 31.
- Rumson A, Payo Garcia A & Hallett S (2020) The role of data within coastal resilience assessments: an East Anglia, UK, case study, Ocean and Coastal Management, 185 (March) Article No. 105004.
- Borden RW, Baillie IC & Hallett SH (2020) The East African contribution to the formalisation of the soil catena concept, CATENA, 185 (February) Article No. 104291.
- Rumson A, Hallett SH & Brewer TR (2019) The application of data innovations to geomorphological impact analyses in coastal areas: An East Anglia, UK, case study, Ocean and Coastal Management, 181 (November) Article No. 104875.
- Barton NA, Farewell TS, Hallett SH & Acland TF (2019) Improving pipe failure predictions: Factors affecting pipe failure in drinking water networks, Water Research, 164 (November) Article No. 114926.
- Golicz K, Hallett SH, Sakrabani R & Pan G (2019) The potential for using smartphones as portable soil nutrient analyzers on suburban farms in central East China, Scientific Reports, 9 Article No. 16424. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.9741578
- Rumson AG & Hallett SH (2019) Innovations in the use of data facilitating insurance as a resilience mechanism for coastal flood risk, Science of the Total Environment, 661 (April) 598-612.
- Truckell IG, Shah SH, Baillie IC, Hallett SH & Sakrabani R (2019) Soil and transport factors in potential distribution systems for biofertilisers derived from palm oil mill residues in Malaysia, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 166 (November) Article No. 105005.
- Papadimitriou L, D’Agostino D, Borg M, Hallett S, Sakrabani R, Thompson A & Knox J (2019) Developing a water strategy for sustainable irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean island communities – Insights from Malta, Outlook On Agriculture, 48 (2) 143-151.
- Caird SP & Hallett SH (2019) Towards evaluation design for smart city development, Journal of Urban Design, 24 (2) 188-209.
- Ali AS, Hallett SH & Brewer TR (2018) Using vegetation indices for the estimation and production of vegetation cover maps in the Jeffara Plain, Libya, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 12 (2) 23-28.
- Baillie IC, Bunyavejchewin S, Kaewfoo M, Baker PJ & Hallett SH (2018) Stoichiometry of cationic nutrients in Phaeozems derived from skarn and Acrisols from other parent materials in lowland forests of Thailand, Geoderma Regional, 12 1-9. Dataset/s: 10.1016/j.geodrs.2017.11.002
- Rumson AG & Hallett SH (2018) Opening up the coast, Ocean and Coastal Management, 160 (June) 133-145.
- Al-bukhari A, Hallett S & Brewer T (2018) A review of potential methods for monitoring rangeland degradation in Libya, Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, 8 (13).
- Wadsworth R, Hallett S & Sakrabani R (2018) Phosphate acceptance map: A novel approach to match phosphorus content of biosolids with land and crop requirements, Agricultural Systems, 166 (October) 57-69.
- Hallett SH, Sakrabani R, Keay CA & Hannam JA (2017) Developments in land information systems: examples demonstrating land resource management capabilities and options, Soil Use and Management, 33 (4) 514-529.
- Hallett SH (2017) Smart cities need smart farms, Environmental Scientist, 26 (1) 10-17.
- Rumson A, Hallett SH & Brewer TR (2017) Coastal risk adaptation: the potential role of accessible geospatial Big Data, Marine Policy, 83 (September) 100-110.
- Hallett SH & Caird SP (2017) Soil-Net: development and impact of innovative, open, online soil science educational resources, Soil Science, 182 (5) 188-201.
- Arrouays D, Leenaars JGB, Richer-de-Forges AC, Adhikari K, Ballabio C, Greve M, Grundy M, Guerrero E, Hempel J, Hengl T, Heuvelink G, Batjes N, Carvalho E, Hartemink A, Hewitt A, Hong S-Y, Krasilnikov P, Lagacherie P, Lelyk G, Libohova Z, Lilly A, McBratney A, McKenzie N, Vasquez GM, Mulder VL, Minasny B, Montanarella L, Odeh I, Padarian J, Poggio L, Roudier P, Saby N, Savin I, Searle R, Solbovoy V, Thompson J, Smith S, Sulaeman Y, Vintila R, Rossel RV, Wilson P, Zhang G-L, Swerts M, Oorts K, Karklins A, Feng L, Ibelles Navarro AR, Levin A, Laktionova T, Dell'Acqua M, Suvannang N, Ruam W, Prasad J, Patil N, Husnjak S, Pásztor L, Okx J, Hallet S, Keay C, Farewell T, Lilja H, Juilleret J, Marx S, Takata Y, Kazuyuki Y, Mansuy N, Panagos P, Van Liedekerke M, Skalsky R, Sobocka J, Kobza J, Eftekhari K, Alavipanah SK, Moussadek R, Badraoui M, Da Silva M, Paterson G, da Conceição Gonçalves M, Theocharopoulos S, Yemefack M, Tedou S, Vrscaj B, Grob U, Kozák J, Boruvka L, Dobos E & Taboada M (2017) Soil legacy data rescue via GlobalSoilMap and other international and national initiatives, GeoResJ, 14 1-19.
- North M, Farewell T, Hallett S & Bartelle A (2017) Monitoring the response of roads and railways to seasonal soil movement with persistent scatterers interferometry over six UK sites, Remote Sensing, 9 (9) Article No. 922.
- Hallett SH, Sakrabani R, Thompson AJ, Deeks LK & Knox JW (2017) Improving soil and water management for agriculture: insights and innovation from Malta, MCAST Journal of Applied Research and Practice, 1 40-59.
- Cui H, Yasaee M, Kalwak G, Pellegrino A, Partridge IK, Hallett SR, Allegri G & Petrinic N (2017) Bridging mechanisms of through-thickness reinforcement in dynamic mode I&II delamination, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 99 (August) 198-207.
- Ponce Romero JM, Hallett SH & Jude S (2017) Leveraging big data tools and technologies: addressing the challenges of the water quality sector, Sustainability, 9 (12) Article No. 2160.
- Pritchard OG, Hallett SH & Farewell TS (2015) Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 15 3151-3180.
- Pritchard OG, Hallett SH & Farewell TS (2015) Probabilistic soil moisture projections to assess Great Britain's future clay-related subsidence hazard, Climatic Change, 133 (4) 635-650.
- Pritchard OG, Farewell TS & Hallett SH (2015) Enhanced visualization of the flat landscape of the Cambridgeshire Fenlands, Geology Today, 31 (5) 187-192.
- Pritchard OG, Hallett SH & Farewell TS (2014) Soil impacts on UK infrastructure: current and future climate, Proceedings of the ICE - Engineering Sustainability, 167 (4) 170-184.
- Pritchard O, Hallett SH & Farewell T (2014) Cracking the problem: Soil impacts on Lincolnshire roads (https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Geoscientist/Archive/March-2014/Cracking-up-in-Lincolnshire), Geoscientist, 24 (2) 14-19.
- Caird SP, Hallett SH & Potter S (2013) The Open2-Innova8ion Tool - A Software Tool for Rating Organisational Innovation Performance, Technovation, 33 (10-11) 381-385.
- Hallett S & Jones R (2013) Harmonisation of the soil map of Africa at the continental scale, Geoderma, 211-212 138-153.
- Pourabdollah A, Leibovici DG, Simms DM, Tempel P, Hallett SH & Jackson MJ (2012) Towards a standard for soil and terrain data exchange: SoTerML, Computers and Geosciences, 45 270-283.
- Keay CA, Hallett SH, Farewell TS, Rayner AP & Jones RJA (2009) Moving the National Soil Database for England and Wales (LandIS) towards INSPIRE Compliance, International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research, 4 (1) 134-155.
- Hallett SH (2007) Of Earth and Water: Look under your feet, Environmental Education, 86.
- Hallett SH & Bullock P (2007) Why are soils important?, Education in Science -Hatfield-, 221 (Feb 07) 23-23.
- Hallett SH, Bullock P & Baillie I (2006) Towards a World Soil Survey Archive and Catalogue, Soil Use and Management, 22 (2) 227-228.
- Hallett SH (2005) Progress on the World Soil Survey Archive and Catalogue (WOSSAC), Tropical Agriculture Association Newsletter, 25 (3).
- Hallett SH, Ozden DM, Keay CA, Koral A, Keskin S & Bradley RI (2003) A land information system for Turkey - a key to the country's sustainable development., Journal of Arid Environments, 54 (3) 513-525.
- Hallett SH, Jones RJA & Keay CA (1996) Environmental Information Systems Developments for Planning Sustainable Land Use, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 10 (1) 47-64.
- Hallett SH & Jones RJA (1993) Compilation of an accumulated temperature database for use in an environmental information system., Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 63 (1-2) 21-34.
- Hallett JS, Partridge M, James SW, Tiwaria D, Farewell T, Hallett SH & Tatam RP (2017) Soil moisture content measurement using optical fiber long period gratings. In: 25th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, OFS 2017, Jeju, 24-28 April 2017.
- Pritchard OJ, Hallett SH & Farewell SH (2015) Soil-related geohazard assessments for maintaining the UK's minor road network. In: European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015 , Vienna, 12-17 April 2015.
- Azalarib A, Hallett S & Brewer T (2015) Desertification mapping using the MEDALUS methodology in Jeffara Plain**2015 Conference. In: DesertLand II: Conference on Desertification and Land Degradation, 2015, Ghent, 16 June 2015.
- Towers W, Allton K & Hallett S (2014) Education and awareness raising activities of the British Society of Soil Science. In: 11th European Geophysical Union General Assembly 2014 (EGU), Vienna, 27 April - 2 May 2014.
- Dewitte O, Jones A, Spaargaren O, Breuning-Madsen H, Brossard M, Dampha A, Deckers J, Gallali T, Hallett S, Jones R, Kilasara M, Le Roux P, Michéli E, Montanarella L, Thiombiano L, Van Ranst E, Yemefack M & Zougmore R (2014) A new harmonised soil map of Africa at the continental scale. In: 11th European Geophysical Union General Assembly 2014 (EGU), Vienna, 27 April - 2 May 2014.
- Hallett S (2014) Big Data and Environmental Informatics. In: Science for the Green Economy 2014 (S4GE), Herbert Smith Freehills, London, 14 May 2014.
- Hallett SH & Deeks L (2012) A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales. In: EGU General Assembly, Vienna, 15-20 April 2012.
- Scott ABJ & Hallett SH (2011) Open Source GIS for small organisations. In: GISRUK 2011, University of Portsmouth, 27 April 2011.
- Simms DM & Hallett S (2011) Development of a web-based portal for supporting community resilience to extreme weather events.. In: 11th International Disaster and Emergency Resilience : IDER 2011, Florence, 13 April 2011.
- García García V, Perotto-Baldivieso HL & Hallett S A prototype design for a web-GIS support system: The Bolivia Amazon case study.. In: The 4C – Challenge: Communication – Coordination – Cooperation – Capacity Development, Bonn, 12 October 2010.
- Simms DM & Hallett SH (2011) WISP- scenario-based dissemination toolkits; Disseminating the outcomes of CREW. In: Community Resilience to Extreme Weather (CREW) Final Conference and General Assembly, Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), London, 25 November 2011.
- Hallett SH (2011) Community resilience to extreme weather. In: Emergency Planning for Severe Weather, Central London, 15 October 2011.
- Towers W, Creamer R, Broll G, Darboux F, Duewel O, Hallett SH, Houskova B, Jones A, Lobnik F, Micheli E & Zdruli P (2010) Soil Awareness and Education : Developing a pan European Approach. In: 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Brisbane, Australia.
- Hallett SH & Keay CA (2010) Requirements and use for soil data at the EU level. In: European Soil Bureau Network (ESBN) Annual Congress, Brussels, DG Environment, 21 September 2010.
- Blenkinsop S, Hallett SH, Truckell IG, Fowler & HJ (2010) The CREW project: Towards a toolkit for the use of probabilistic climate change projections.. In: BHS Third International Symposium: Role of Hydrology in Managing Consequences of a Changing Global Environment, Newcastle University, UK, 19 July 2010.
- Hallett SH & Simmons T (2007) The Soil-Net project. In: Association of Universities in the East of England, in association with COVER: Higher Education: Engaging with our Communities , Cambridge, 19 November 2007.
- Hallett SH, Boyce D, Laidoudi G, Mcintosh BS, Rinaudo JD, Courtois N, Imeson A & Holden A (2005) SCAPT: A Strategic Catchment Analysis and Planning Tool.. In: Drought and Water Deficiency: From Research to Policy Making, Cyprus, 12 May 2005.
- Hallett SH, Ozden DM, Keay CA, Colombo BJ, Koral A, Keskin S & Bradley RI (2002) A Land Information System for Turkey ? A Resource for Future Sustainable Development.. In: The Future of the Mediterranean Rural Environment: Prospects for Sustainable Land Use and Management, Menemen, Turkey, 8 May 2002.
- Al-Bukhari A, Brewer T & Hallett S (2022) Evaluation of selected vegetation indices to assess rangeland vegetation in Eastern Libya. In: Environmental Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Libya, Springer, p. 33-52.
- Yasaee M, Mohamed G, Pellegrino A, Petrinic N & Hallett SR (2016) Dynamic mode II delamination in through thickness reinforced composites. In: Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution: Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Springer, p. 91-97.
- Simo I, Constanje R, Fealy R, Hallett SH, Hannam J, Holden N, Jahns G, Jones B, Massey P, Mayr T, McDonald E, Reidy B, Schulte R, Sills P, Spaargaren O, Zawadka J & Creamer RE (2014) Mapping Soils in Ireland. In: GlobalSoilMap: Basis of the global spatial soil information system, CRC Press.
- (2013) Soil Atlas of Africa (http://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/soil-map-soil-atlas-africa).
- Pena J, Bonet A, Bellot J, Rafael Sanchez J, Eisenhuth D, Hallett SH & Aledo A (2006) Driving Forces of Land-Use Change in a Cultural Landscape of Spain - A preliminary assessment of the human-mediated influences.. In: Simulating Land-Use Change., Springer.
- Dufour MJD, Hallett SH, Jones RJA & Gibbons J (1998) Spatial Information Systems for Environmental Impact Assessment in the UK. In: Land Information Systems: Developments for planning the sustainable use of land resources, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg..
- Hanley N, Hallett SH, Moffatt I, Farley D & Taylor Duncan K (1992) Chapter Eight: Economic Instruments.. In: Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution Sixteenth Report: Freshwater Quality., HMSO, p. 140-160.