Areas of expertise
- Agrifood Systems
- Water Science and Engineering
Professor Knox joined Cranfield University in 1993, after completing a BSc (Hons) in Physical Geography (Plymouth Polytechnic), an MSc Land and Water Management (Silsoe College, Cranfield) and a PhD in Application of GIS for modelling agricultural water demands (Cranfield).
As a recognised international
specialist in irrigation science, Professor Knox has developed thought leadership in
three key areas (i) agricultural water resources management, (ii) climate
impacts and adaptation, and (iii) precision irrigation and resource efficiency. He also manages a research theme in water management for sportsturf through collaborative links with the Scandinavian Sportsturf and Environment Research Foundation (STERF).
Professor Knox has an international
research reputation in the science, engineering and management of water
resources for agriculture, including assessing the relationships
between water resources, agricultural productivity (yield) and the environment,
and the sustainability of irrigation in the context of climate change impacts and food security. His research interests are in
biophysical and water resource modelling, precision irrigation engineering,
geospatial modelling and climate impacts and adaptation in agriculture.
2016-19: Co-Investigator BBSRC Global Food Security (BB/N020499/1) Increasing resilience to water-related risk in the UK fresh fruit & vegetable system.
2015-17: Co-Investigator NERC (NE/L010070/1) Analysis of
historic UK droughts and water scarcity: systems-based study of drivers,
impacts and their interactions.
2015-17: Principal Investigator EC Horizon 2020 Twinning FORWARIM Agricultural water research and innovation in Malta.
2015-17: Co-Investigator NERC Innovation grant (NE/N017471/1) Developing decision support tools for improving drought risk and abstraction management for UK agribusinesses.
2014-16: Co-Investigator NERC Belmont Forum (NE/M005259/1) Assessing hydro-social and environmental impacts of sugarcane production on land use and food security.
2014-15: Appointed lead expert in water and agriculture for UN Food and Agriculture (FAO) programme evaluation on climate change adaptation and mitigation (CCAM).
24 years international research and consultancy experience including technical missions to Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, France, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Mauritius, Morocco, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Sweden, Swaziland, Tanzania, Turkey, the USA and Zambia.
2013-present: Editor ‘Outlook on Agriculture’ and Associate Editor ‘Irrigation Science’.
2013-present: Fellow Royal Geographical Society (RGS).
Author of 61 peer reviewed journal papers and Web of Science h-factor 18.
UK Research Councils, including NERC and BBSRC.
UK Government departments including Defra and DFID.
European Commission (H2020) and DG Environment.
Environment Agency (EA)
Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB), including UK Potato Council (PCL) and Horticulture Development Company (HDC).
UK and international agri-businesses
Articles In Journals
- Lankford B, Pringle C, McCosh J, Shabalala M, Hess T & Knox JW (2022) Irrigation area, efficiency and water storage mediate the drought resilience of irrigated agriculture in a semi-arid catchment, Science of the Total Environment, Available online 17 November 2022, Article No. 160263.
- Holman I & Knox JW (2022) Troubled water, The Plant Review, 4 (2) 28-31.
- Zubelzu S, Panigrahi N, Thompson AJ & Knox JW (2022) Modelling water fluxes to improve banana irrigation scheduling and management in Magdalena, Colombia, Irrigation Science, Available online 25 August 2022.
- Correa-Cano ME, Salmoral G, Rey D, Knox JW, Graves A, Melo O, Foster W, Naranjo L, Zegarra E, Johnson C, Viteri-Salazar O & Yan X (2022) A novel modelling toolkit for unpacking the Water-Energy-Food-Environment (WEFE) nexus of agricultural development, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 159 (May) Article No. 112182.
- Kamwamba-Mtethiwa J, Wiyo K, Knox J & Weatherhead K (2021) Diffusion of small-scale pumped irrigation technologies and their association with farmer-led irrigation development in Malawi, Water International, 46 (3) 397-416.
- Khan MAA, Mahmood Ch. K, Ashraf I, Siddiqui MT & Knox JW (2021) Evaluating socio-economic and environmental factors influencing farm-level water scarcity in Punjab, Pakistan, Irrigation and Drainage, 70 (4) 797-808.
- Silici L, Rowe A, Suppiramaniam N & Knox JW (2021) Building adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture to climate change: evidence synthesis on learning outcomes, Environmental Research Communications, 3 (12) Article No. 122001. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.15090246
- Sutcliffe C, Knox J & Hess T (2021) Managing irrigation under pressure: how supply chain demands and environmental objectives drive imbalance in agricultural resilience to water shortages, Agricultural Water Management, 243 (January) Article No. 106484.
- Panigrahi N, Thompson AJ, Zubelzu S & Knox JW (2021) Identifying opportunities to improve management of water stress in banana production, Scientia Horticulturae, 276 (January) Article No. 109735.
- Chengot R, Knox JW & Holman IP (2021) Evaluating the feasibility of water sharing as a drought risk management tool for irrigated agriculture, Sustainability, 13 (3) Article No. 1456.
- Holman IP, Hess T, Rey Vicario D & Knox JW (2021) A multi-level framework for adaptation to drought within temperate agriculture, Frontiers in Environmental Science, 8 Article No. 589871. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.13259291
- Pawlett M, Hannam JA & Knox JW (2021) Redefining soil health, Microbiology, 167 (1) Article No. 001030.
- Clarke D, Hess T, Haro-Monteagudo D, Semenov M & Knox J (2021) Assessing future drought risks and wheat yield losses in England, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 297 (February) Article No. 108248.
- D’Agostino D, Borg M, Hallett SH, Sakrabani RS, Thompson A, Papadimitriou L & Knox JW (2020) Multi-stakeholder analysis to improve agricultural water management policy and practice in Malta, Agricultural Water Management, 229 (February) Article No. 105920.
- Hess T, Knox J, Holman I & Sutcliffe C (2020) Resilience of primary food production to a changing climate: on-farm responses to water-related risks, Water (Switzerland), 12 (8) Article No. 2155.
- Knox JW, Kay MG, Hess TM & Holman IP (2020) The challenges of developing an irrigation strategy for UK agriculture and horticulture in 2020: industry and research priorities, CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 15 Article No. 050.
- Lankford B, Closas A, Dalton J, López Gunn E, Hess T, Knox J, van der Kooij S, Lautze J, Molden D, Orr S, Pittock J, Richter B, Riddell P, Scott C, Venot J, Vos J & Zwarteveen M (2020) A scale-based framework to understand the promises, pitfalls and paradoxes of irrigation efficiency to meet major water challenges, Global Environmental Change, 65 (November) Article No. 102182.
- Salmoral G, Carbó AV, Zegarra E, Knox JW & Rey Vicario D (2020) Reconciling irrigation demands for agricultural expansion with environmental sustainability - a preliminary assessment for the Ica Valley, Peru, Journal of Cleaner Production, 276 (December) Article No. 123544.
- Salmoral G, Zegarra E, Vázquez-Rowe I, González F, del Castillo L, Saravia GR, Graves A, Rey D & Knox JW (2020) Water-related challenges in nexus governance for sustainable development: Insights from the city of Arequipa, Peru, Science of the Total Environment, 747 (December) Article No. 141114.
- Haro-Monteagudo D, Knox JW & Holman IP (2019) D-Risk: a decision-support webtool for improving drought risk management in irrigated agriculture, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 162 (July) 855-858. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.6792260, 10.5285/0cea8d7aca57427fae92241348ae9b03
- Papadimitriou L, D’Agostino D, Borg M, Hallett S, Sakrabani R, Thompson A & Knox J (2019) Developing a water strategy for sustainable irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean island communities – Insights from Malta, Outlook On Agriculture, 48 (2) 143-151.
- El Chami D, Knox JW, Daccache A & Weatherhead EK (2019) Assessing the financial and environmental impacts of precision irrigation in a humid climate, Horticultural Science (Czech Republic), 46 (1) 43-52.
- González Perea R, Daccache A, Rodríguez Díaz JA, Camacho Poyato E & Knox JW (2018) Modelling impacts of precision irrigation on crop yield and in-field water management, Precision Agriculture, 19 (3) 497-512.
- Knox JW, Haro‐Monteagudo D, Hess TM & Morris J (2018) Identifying trade-offs and reconciling competing demands for water: integrating agriculture into a robust decision-making framework, Earth's Future, 6 (10) 1457-1470.
- Gómez‐Armayones C, Kvalbein A, Aamlid TS & Knox JW (2018) Assessing evidence on the agronomic and environmental impacts of turfgrass irrigation management, Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 204 (4) 333-346.
- Rey D, Holman IP & Knox JW (2017) Developing drought resilience in irrigated agriculture in the face of increasing water scarcity, Regional Environmental Change, 17 (5) 1527-1540.
- Morris J, Else MA, El Chami D, Daccache A, Rey D & Knox J (2017) Essential irrigation and the economics of strawberries in a temperate climate, Agricultural Water Management, 194 (December) 90-99.
- Haro-Monteagudo D, Daccache A & Knox JW (2017) Exploring the utility of drought and water scarcity indicators to assess climate risks to agricultural productivity in a humid climate, Hydrology Research, 48 (6, nh2017010).
- Hallett SH, Sakrabani R, Thompson AJ, Deeks LK & Knox JW (2017) Improving soil and water management for agriculture: insights and innovation from Malta, MCAST Journal of Applied Research and Practice, 1 40-59.
- Rey D, Holman I, Daccache A, Morris J, Weatherhead K & Knox J (2016) Modelling and mapping the economic value of supplemental irrigation in a humid climate, Agricultural Water Management, 173 (July) 13-22.
- Hess TM, Sumberg J, Biggs T, Georgescu M, Haro-Monteagudo D, Jewitt G, Ozdogan M, Marshall M, Thenkabail P, Daccache A, Marin F & Knox JW (2016) A sweet deal? Sugarcane, water and agricultural transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Global Environmental Change, 39 (July) 181-194.
- Knox JW, Daccache A, Hess TM & Haro D (2016) Meta-analysis of climate impacts and uncertainty on crop yields in Europe, Environmental Research Letters, 11 (11) Article No. 113004.
- Kamwamba-Mtethiwa J, Weatherhead K & Knox JW (2016) Assessing performance of small-scale pumped irrigation systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from a systematic review, Irrigation and Drainage, 65 (3) 308-318.
- Aamlid TS, Knox JW, Riley H, Kvalbein A & Pettersen T (2016) Crop coefficients, growth rates and quality of cool-season turfgrasses, Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 202 (1) 69-80.
- Pérez Ortolá M, Daccache A & Knox JW (2016) Modeling irrigation and fertilizer use for chlorophyll production, Grassland Science, 62 (2) 102-111.
- Sharmina M, Hoolohan C, Bows-Larkin A, Burgess P, Colwill J, Gilbert P, Howard D, Knox J & Anderson K (2016) A nexus perspective on competing land demands: Wider lessons from a UK policy case study, Environmental Science and Policy, 59 (May) 74-84.
- Perez-Ortola M, Daccache A, Hess TM & Knox JW (2015) Simulating impacts of irrigation heterogeneity on onion (Allium cepa L.) yield in a humid climate, Irrigation Science, 33 (1) 1-14.
- Daccache A, Sataya W & Knox JW (2015) Climate change impacts on rain-fed and irrigated rice yield in Malawi, International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 13 (2) 87-103.
- Perez-Ortola M & Knox JW (2015) Water relations and irrigation requirements of onion (Allium Cepa L.): a review of yield and quality impacts, Experimental Agriculture, 51 (2) 210-231.
- El Chami D, Knox JW, Daccache A & Weatherhead EK (2015) The economics of irrigating wheat in a humid climate - A study in the East of England, Agricultural Systems, 133 97-108.
- Daccache A, Knox JW, Weatherhead EK, Daneshkhah A & Hess TM (2015) Implementing precision irrigation in a humid climate - recent experiences and on-going challenges, Agricultural Water Management, 147 (January) 135-143.
- Watts G, Battarbee RW, Bloomfield JP, Crossman J, Daccache A, Durance I, Elliott JA, Garner G, Hannaford J, Hannah DM, Hess T, Jackson CR, Kay AL, Kernan M, Knox J, Mackay J, Monteith DT, Ormerod SJ, Rance J, Stuart ME, Wade AJ, Wade SD, Weatherhead K, Whitehead PG & Wilby RL (2015) Climate change and water in the UK - past changes and future prospects, Progress in Physical Geography, 39 (1) 6-28.
- Ngirazie LA, Bushara AI & Knox JW (2015) Assessing the performance of water user associations in the Gash Irrigation Project, Sudan, Water International, 40 (4) 635-646.
- Weatherhead K, Knox J, Hess T & Daccache A (2015) Exploring irrigation futures Developments in demand forecasting, Outlook On Agriculture, 44 (2) 119-126.
- Hess TM, Daccache A, Daneshkhah A & Knox JW (2015) Scale impacts on spatial variability in reference evapotranspiration, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 61 (3) 601-609.
- Daccache A, Ciurana JS, Rodriguez Diaz JA & Knox JW (2014) Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region, Environmental Research Letters, 9 (12) Article No. 124014.
- Hess TM & Knox JW (2013) Water savings in irrigated agriculture - a framework for assessing technology and management options to reduce water losses, Outlook On Agriculture, 42 (2) 85-91.
- Hess TM & Knox JW (2013) A framework for assessing technology and management options to reduce water losses., Outlook On Agriculture, 42 (2) 85-91.
- Monaghan J, Daccache A, Vickers L, Hess T, Weatherhead EK, Grove I & Knox JW (2013) More 'crop per drop': constraints and opportunities for precision irrigation in European agriculture., Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93 (5) 977-980.
- Strandberg M, Blombäck K, Dahl Jensen AM & Knox JW (2012) Priorities for sustainable turfgrass management: a research and industry perspective, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section B. Soil and Plant Science, 62 (Supplement 1) 3-9.
- Knox JW & Wade S (2012) Assessing climate risks to UK agriculture, Nature Climate Change, 2 (6) 378-378.
- Thenkabail PS, Knox JW, Ozdogan M, Gumma MK, Congalton RG, Wu Z, Milesi C, Finkral A, Marshall M, Mariotto I, You S, Giri C & Nagler P (2012) Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: how can remote sensing help?, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 78 (8) 773-782.
- Knox JW, Kay MG & Weatherhead EK (2012) Water regulation, crop production, and agricultural water management-Understanding farmer perspectives on irrigation efficiency, Agricultural Water Management, 108 3-8.
- Knox JW, Hess TM, Daccache A & Wheeler T (2012) Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia, Environmental Research Letters, 7 (3) Article No. 034032.
- Daccache A, Keay C, Jones RJA, Weatherhead K, Stalham MA & Knox JW (2012) Climate change and land suitability for potato production in England and Wales: impacts and adaptation, Journal of Agricultural Science, 150 (2) 161-177.
- Knox, J.W., Rodriguez-Diaz, J.A., and Hess & T.M. (2011) Estimating evapotranspiration using atmometers for irrigation scheduling in a humid environment, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 137 (11) 685-691.
- Rodríguez-Díaz JA, Weatherhead EK, García Morillo J & Knox JW (2011) Benchmarking irrigation water use in golf courses - A case study in Spain, Irrigation and Drainage, 60 (3) 381-392.
- Chung SO, Rodriguez-Diaz JA, Weatherhead EK & Knox JW (2011) Climate change impacts on water for irrigating paddy rice in South Korea, Irrigation and Drainage, 60 (2) 263-273.
- Knox JW, Rodriguez-Diaz JA & Hess TM (2011) Estimating evapotranspiration by using atmometers for irrigation scheduling in a humid environment, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 137 (11) 685-691.
- Daccache A, Weatherhead EK, Stalham MA & Knox JW (2011) Impacts of climate change on irrigated potato production in a humid climate, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151 (12) 1641-1653.
- Carr MKV & Knox JW (2011) The water relations and irrigation requirements of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.): a review., Experimental Agriculture, 47 (1) 1-25.
- Knox JW, Tyrrel SF, Daccache A & Weatherhead EK (2011) A geospatial approach to assessing microbiological water quality risks associated with irrigation abstraction, Water and Environment Journal, 25 (2) 282-289.
- Morris J, Graves A, Daccache A, Hess & Knox J (2010) Towards a framework for the economic assessment of drought risk - an ecosystems approach, Options méditerranéenes, 95 (A) 139-148.
- Knox JW, Rodríguez Díaz JA, Nixon DJ & Mkhwanazi M (2010) A preliminary assessment of climate change impacts on sugarcane in Swaziland, Agricultural Systems, 103 (2) 63-72.
- Knox J, Morris J & Hess T (2010) Identifying future risks to UK agricultural crop production: Putting climate change in context, Outlook On Agriculture, 39 (4) 249-256.
- Knox J W & Kay M G (2010) Teasing out the impacts of climate change on agricultural development, Outlook On Agriculture, 39 (4) 237-238.
- Knox JW, Rodriguez-Diaz JA, Weatherhead EK & Kay MG (2010) Development of a water-use strategy for horticulture in England and Wales - a case study, Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 85 (2) 89-93.
- Knox J, Weatherhead K, Diaz JR & Kay M (2009) Developing a strategy to improve irrigation efficiency in a temperate climate A case study in England, Outlook On Agriculture, 38 (4) 303-309.
- Leathes W, Knox JW, Kay MG, Trawick P & Rodriguez-Diaz JA (2008) Developing UK farmers' institutional capacity to defend their water rights and effectively manage limited water resources, Irrigation and Drainage, 57 (3) 322-331.
- Knox JW, Weatherhead EK & Ioris A A R (2007) Assessing water requirements for irrigated agriculture in Scotland, Water International, 32 (1) 133-144.
- De Silva CS, Weatherhead EK, Knox JW & Rodriguez-Diaz JA (2007) Predicting the impacts of climate change - A case study of paddy irrigation water requirements in Sri Lanka, Agricultural Water Management, 93 (1-2) 19-29.
- De Silva C, Weatherhead E, Knox J & Rodriguez-Diaz J (2007) Predicting the impacts of climate change-A case study of paddy irrigation water requirements in Sri Lanka, Agricultural Water Management, 93 (1-2) 19-29.
- Tyrrel SF, Knox JW & Weatherhead EK (2006) Microbiological water quality requirements for salad irrigation in the United Kingdom, Journal of Food Protection, 69 (8) 2029-2035.
- Knox JW & Weatherhead EK (2005) The growth of trickle irrigation in England and Wales: Data, regulation and water resource impacts, Irrigation and Drainage, 54 (2) 135-143.
- Matthews RB, Wassmann R & Knox JW (2000) Coupling crop and soil models to simulate methane emissions from rice fields in Asia, Journal of Agricultural Science, 135 (3) 321-329.
- Knox JW, Morris J, Weatherhead EK & Turner AP (2000) Mapping the financial benefits of spray irrigation and potential financial impact of restrictions on abstraction: A case study in Anglian Region, Journal of Environmental Management, 58 (1) 45-59.
- Matthews RB, Wassmann R, Knox JW & Buendia LV (2000) Using crop/soil simulation model and GIS techniques to assess methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. IV. Upscaling of crop management scenarios to national levels, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 58 (1-3) 201-217.
- Weatherhead EK & Knox JW (2000) Predicting and mapping the future demand for irrigation water in England and Wales, Agricultural Water Management, 43 (2) 203-218.
- Weatherhead EK & Knox JW (1997) Peak demands from spray irrigation, Water and Environment Journal, 11 (4) 305-309.
- Knox JW, Weatherhead EK & Bradley RI (1997) Mapping the total volumetric irrigation water requirements in England and Wales, Agricultural Water Management, 33 (1) 1-18.
- Knox JW, Weatherhead EK & Bradley RI (1996) Mapping the spatial distribution of volumetric irrigation water requirements for maincrop potatoes in England and Wales, Agricultural Water Management, 31 (1-2) 1-15.
- Shamal S, Weatherhead E & Knox J (2008) Difficulties in using spectral properties to map irrigated areas in a temperate climate: A case study of potatoes in England. In: 29th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2008 (ACRS 2008), Colombo, 10 November 2008.
- Knox JW, Rodriguez-Diaz JA, Weatherhead EK & Marmol JP (2006) Using water auditing to assess irrigation efficiency: a comparative assessment of trickle, sprinkler and rain-guns on potatoes in Scotland. In: International symposium on water and land management for sustainable irrigated agriculture, Cukurova University Turkey, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey, 4 April 2006.
- Knox JW & Weatherhead EK (2005) Using water auditing to assess irrigation efficiency: a comparative assessment of trickle, sprinkler and rain-guns for potato production in the UK. In: US 26th Annual Irrigation Association Show (Technical Session), Arizona, Arizona, USA, 6 November 2005.
- Morris J, Vasileiou K, Weatherhead EK, Knox JW & Leiva-Baron F (2003)
The sustainability of irrigation in England and the impact of water pricing and regulation policy options. In: International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry, London, 15-17 September 2003.
- Hedley CB, Knox JW, Raine SR & Smith R (2014) Water: Advanced Irrigation Technologies. In: Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, San Diego: Elsevier, p. 378-406.
- Morris J, Ahodo K, Weatherhead EK, Daccache A & Knox JW (2014) Economics of rainfed and irrigated potato production in a humid environment. Economics of Water Management in Agriculture. In: Economics of Water Management in Agriculture, Hoboken: CRC Press, p. 71-97.
- Hess TM, Knox JW, Kay MG & and Weatherhead EK (2010) Managing the Water Footprint of Irrigated Food Production in England and Wales. In: Sustainable Water, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 78-92, ed. 1st.
- Díaz J, Weatherhead E, Knox J & Camacho E (2009) Consequences of climate change on irrigation water requirements in Southern Spain.. In: Climate Variability, Modeling Tools and Agricultural Decision-Making, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., p. 203-212.
- Knox JW, Shamal SAM, Weatherhead EK & Rodriguez-Diaz JA (2009) The challenges of mapping irrigated areas in a temperate climate: experiences from England.. In: Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security. Thenkabail PS, Lyon JG, Turral H, Biradar CM (ed.), Boca Raton: CRC Press, p. 237-249.