Areas of expertise
- Digital Agriculture
- Instrumentation, Sensors and Measurement Science
- Monitoring and Environmental Informatics
- Natural Capital
- Soil Resources
- Water Science and Engineering
BackgroundDr Toby Waine is an agricultural engineer with a farming background. He completed his EngD in Non-invasive soil property measurement for precision farming at Cranfield University in 1999. After, he helped to commercialise an electromagnetic induction (EMI) based soil property sensor investigated during his doctorate project while working as the Technical Manager for an IT-agronomy company. For the next three years Dr Waine gained further commercial IT experience, firstly working as a Software Engineer, then European Technical Sales Engineer for a leading mobile phone software company. Keen to contribute to better understanding of agricultural production systems, he returned to academia in 2004 to focus on the application of remote sensing and geographical information systems for land resources monitoring. Particular areas of interest are the integration of multi-spectral satellite imagery of different spatial resolutions within the context of crop survey design and crop production estimates. Dr Waine lectures on the MSc in Geographical Information Management, a course developed in collaboration with industry to provide a balanced coverage of GIS, remote sensing and spatial data analytics.
Dr Waine's research can be grouped into 2 main themes:
- Land resources monitoring for crop inventory: Dr Waine has extensive experience in land use/cover monitoring where remote sensing technology is integrated with existing data sets to provide local, regional or national inventories. From measuring illicit opium production in Afghanistan to undertaking national assessments of vegetation in semi-arid climates, innovative use of remote sensing remains a key theme in both his research and consultancy work. An example of specific expertise is in developing and supporting operational methods for vegetation monitoring and providing robust, statistically-based area estimates of land cover and net primary production. Dr Waine has developed novel ways of defining land cover typologies and classification schemes for optimising classification accuracy.
- Food security, through the application of remote sensing to Precision Agriculture: Dr Waine’s focus is remote sensing of crops for canopy management and yield prediction. This involves understanding differences in spatial and temporal scale, and exploiting the advantages of each in combination with other datasets. An example is the ‘FarmingTruth’ feasibility study with the European Space Agency which is evaluating the commercial and technical viability of a new precision agriculture service based on the fusion of data from field-based soil and nutrient measurements with remotely sensed multi-spectral images. This service will allow growers to more accurately target inputs (e.g. fertilisers) whilst reducing waste and environmental impact. This research theme will focus on developing models and techniques to fully exploit the underlying variation of nutrients, water and soil. Many existing practices are out-dated and over-simplistic. Therefore the aim is to build a new paradigm so that fields are managed in a way that reflects their variability (e.g. in soil properties) over space and time.
- Crop monitoring with remote sensing - working internationally with tea in Kenya, coffee in Vietnam, potatoes in China, wheat in N America, sugar in India, as well as UK arable and horticultural crops
- Innovate UK – Exploiting satellite data for the precision management of grassland systems
- European Space Agency – IAP feasibility study, FarmingTruth precision farming service https://business.esa.int/projects/farmingtruth
- UK Government (MOD and FCO) – Survey, Monitoring, Targeting and Verification of Opium Poppy in Afghanistan: (2004-2009)
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime – Illicit crop production monitoring using remote sensing, capacity building
- Commodity traders – Improving high value crop production estimates using remote sensing
- Magellium Ltd (UK space agency) - Crop identification using multispectral and temporal satellite remote sensing
- Eurostat (JBA consulting) – LUCAS 2012, 2015, 2018 training of UK and Eire surveyors
Articles In Journals
- Beale JE, Waine TW, Corstanje R & Evans JG (2021) A method to assess the performance of SAR-derived surface soil moisture products, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Available online 06 April 2021. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.13028123
- Hamer AM, Simms DM & Waine TW (2021) Replacing human interpretation of agricultural land in Afghanistan with a deep convolutional neural network, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 42 (8) 3017-3038. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.13228634
- Vavlas NC, Waine TW, Meersmans J, Burgess PJ, Fontanelli G & Richter GM (2020) Deriving wheat crop productivity indicators using Sentinel-1 time series, Remote Sensing, 12 (15) Article No. 2385.
- Ferracci V, Bolas CG, Freshwater RA, Staniaszek Z, King T, Jaars K, Otu-Larbi F, Beale JE, Malhi Y, Waine TW, Jones RL, Ashworth K & Harris NRP (2020) Continuous isoprene measurements in a UK temperate forest for a whole growing season: effects of drought stress during the 2018 heatwave, Geophysical Research Letters, 47 (15) Article No. e2020GL088885.
- Snapir B, Momblanch A, Jain SK, Waine TW & Holman IP (2019) A method for monthly mapping of wet and dry snow using Sentinel-1 and MODIS: Application to a Himalayan river basin, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 74 (February) 222-230.
- Bannister D, Orr A, Jain SK, Holman IP, Momblanch A, Phillips T, Adeloye AJ, Snapir B, Waine TW, Hosking JS & Allen-Sader C (2019) Bias correction of high-resolution regional climate model precipitation output gives the best estimates of precipitation in Himalayan catchments, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Available online 14 December 2019 (24).
- Snapir B, Waine TW & Biermann L (2019) Maritime vessel classification to monitor fisheries with SAR: demonstration in the North Sea, Remote Sensing, 11 (3) Article No. 353.
- Whetton RL, Waine TW & Mouazen AM (2018) Hyperspectral measurements of yellow rust and fusarium head blight in cereal crops: Part 2: On-line field measurement, Biosystems Engineering, 167 (March) 144-158.
- Vandrol J, Rivas Casado M, Blackburn K, Waine TW, Leinster P & Wright R (2018) In-channel 3D models of riverine environments for hydromorphological characterization, Remote Sensing, 10 (7) Article No. 1005.
- Campbell S, Simmons R, Rickson J, Waine T & Simms D (2018) Using Near-Surface Photogrammetry Assessment of Surface Roughness (NSPAS) to assess the effectiveness of erosion control treatments applied to slope forming materials from a mine site in West Africa, Geomorphology, 322 (December) 188-195.
- Whetton RL, Waine TW & Mouazen AM (2018) Evaluating management zone maps for variable rate fungicide application and selective harvest, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 153 (October) 202-212.
- Albugami S, Palmer S, Meersmans J & Waine T (2018) Evaluating MODIS dust-detection indices over the Arabian Peninsula, Remote Sensing, 10 (12) Article No. 1993.
- Whetton RL, Hassall KL, Waine TW & Mouazen AM (2018) Hyperspectral measurements of yellow rust and fusarium head blight in cereal crops: Part 1: Laboratory study, Biosystems Engineering, 166 (February) 101-115.
- Snapir B, Waine TW, Corstanje R, Redfern S, De Silva J & Kirui C (2018) Harvest monitoring of Kenyan tea plantations with X-band SAR, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 11 (3) 930-938.
- Snapir B, Simms DM & Waine TW (2017) Mapping the expansion of galamsey gold mines in the cocoa growing area of Ghana using optical remote sensing, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 58 (June) 225-233.
- Corstanje R, Mercer T, Rickson JR, Deeks LK, Newell-Price P, Holman I, Kechavarzi C & Waine TW (2017) Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils, Solid Earth, 8 (5) 1003-1016.
- Whetton RL, Waine TW & Mouazen AM (2017) Optimising configuration of a hyperspectral imager for on-line field measurement of wheat canopy, Biosystems Engineering, 155 (March) 84-95.
- Simms DM, Waine TW & Taylor JC (2017) Improved estimates of opium cultivation in Afghanistan using imagery-based stratification, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 38 (13) 3785-3799.
- Whattoff D, Mouazen A & Waine T (2017) A multi sensor data fusion approach for creating variable depth tillage zones, Advances in Animal Biosciences, 8 (2) 461-465.
- Simms DM, Waine TW, Taylor JC & Brewer TR (2016) Image segmentation for improved consistency in image-interpretation of opium poppy, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37 (6) 1243-1256.
- Mouazen AM, Alhwaimel SA, Kuang B & Waine T (2014) Multiple on-line soil sensors and data fusion approach for delineation of water holding capacity zones for site specific irrigation, Soil and Tillage Research, 143 (November) 95-105.
- Snapir B, Hobbs S & Waine TW (2014) Roughness measurements over an agricultural soil surface with Structure from Motion, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 96 (October) 210-223.
- Waine TW, Simms DM, Taylor JC & Juniper GR (2014) Towards improving the accuracy of opium yield estimates with remote sensing, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35 (16) 6292-6309.
- Simms D, Waine T, Taylor J, Taylor J & Juniper G (2014) The application of time-series MODIS NDVI profiles for the acquisition of crop information across Afghanistan, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35 (16) 6234-6254.
- Taylor JC, Waine TW, Juniper GR, Simms DM & Brewer TR (2010) Survey and monitoring of opium poppy and wheat in Afghanistan: 2003-2009, Remote Sensing Letters, 1 (3) 179-185.
- Earl R, Taylor JC, Wood GA, Bradley I, James IT, Waine T, Welsh JP, Godwin RJ & Knight SM (2003) Soil Factors and their Influence on Within-Field Crop Variability, I: Field Observation of Soil Variation, Biosystems Engineering, 84 (4) 425-440.
- James IT, Waine TW, Bradley RI, Taylor JC & Godwin RJ (2003) Determination of soil type boundaries using electromagnetic induction scanning techniques., Biosystems Engineering, 86 (4) 421-430.
- Pahl O, Godwin RJ, Hann MJ & Waine TW (2001) Cost-effective pollution control by shallow injection of pig slurry into growing crops, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 80 (4) 381-390.
- Simms DM & Waine TW (2016) Opium yield estimates in Afghanistan using remote sensing. In: Seventh International Conference on Agricultural Statistics (ICAS VII), Rome, 26-28 October 2016.
- Mouazen AM, Alhwaimel SA, Kuang B & Waine TW (2013) Fusion of data from multiple soil sensors for the delineation of water holding capacity zones. In: 9th European conference on precision agriculture (ECPA 2013), Lleida, 7-11 July 2013.
- Waine TW, Blackmore BS & Godwin RJ (2000) Mapping available water content and estimating soil textural class using electro-magnetic induction.. In: AgEng Warwick 2000 : agricultural engineering into the third millennium : international conference on agricultural engineering, Warwick, UK, 2 July 2000.
- James IT, Waine TW, Bradley RI, Godwin RJ & Taylor JC (2000) A comparison between traditional methods and EMI scanning for determining soil textural boundaries. In: AgEng 2000, Warwick, UK, 3 July 2000.