This module can only be taken as part of the Expeditionary Warfare Systems Engineering and Technology MSc (USA).
To provide the students with an understanding of the fundamental principles of radar, allowing them to relate this to the design and analysis of radar systems.

At a glance

  • Dates
    • 22 - 26 Mar 2021
  • Duration5 days
  • LocationNSWC Crane, Indiana, USA

Course structure

Lectures, tutorials, video demonstrations, computer-based exercises

What you will learn

On successful completion of this module a student should be able to:

Knowledge and Understanding:

RADAR Principles

- Identify and demonstrate the principles underlying radar detection in noise and clutter, relating these principles to conventional radar system design. Critically evaluate the detection performance of a radar system, given its design parameters.
- Evaluate the specialist properties and particular operational advantages of modern multi-function radar and SAR systems. Produce a viable radar system design, given a suitable specification of the required radar performance.

RADAR Electronic Warfare

- Use concepts of sensitivity, resolution and discrimination to analyse the capabilities and applications of receivers used in ES.
- Identify the role and quantify the performance of a modern radar system, given suitable data regarding its transmissions.
- Summarize and assess the various electronic attack and associated defence measures applicable to modern radar systems against a given specifications.



Core content

RADAR Principles

• Introduction: comparison with other sensors, frequency bands, relationship between size, wavelength and range ,target data, historical notes.
• Radar detection theory: radar range equation, Pd, Pfa and SNR relationships, FAR, No. hits, Integration (quadrature detection).
• Pulsed Radar Parameters: PRF, pulse width, duty ratio, peak and average powers, min range, eclipsing, max unambiguous range, low PRF, spectrum of pulsed radar, signal bandwidth, matched reception, range resolution. Search radar application.
• Losses: effect of clear air, precipitation, multipath; Losses associated with radar system, including the antenna (beam-shape loss).
• CW and FM ranging: The Doppler Effect, Doppler sensing, clutter rejection, Doppler filtering/velocity gating. Two phase linear saw-tooth modulation, ranging, effect of Doppler, velocity and range measurement. Missile seekers.
• Radar cross-section: principal factors; surface reflection effects; forms of scattering; echo mechanisms; variation of RCS with angle; typical values; Swerling models.
• Pulse compression: frequency coding (FMOP); Phase coding (PMOP); matched filtering; range and velocity resolution; compressed pulse width; range-velocity coupling.
• Clutter: surface and volume backscatter coefficient; spatial and temporal variation; estimation of clutter return and signal-to-clutter ratio for volume and surface clutter; statistical description for clutter; clutter spectrum and de-correlation time.
• CFAR: Constant false alarm rate systems; Clutter statistics and CFAR performance.
• Pulse-Doppler radar: principle of operation; clutter spectrum; characteristics of HPRF and MPRF systems; FMICW in range measurement; multiple PRFs in range measurement. Airborne early-warning radar: requirements; design drivers and solution; typical parameters. Battlefield surveillance radar: requirements; system design; unambiguous range and velocity measurement.
• MTI radar: System diagram; clutter rejection by single and double delay line cancellers; blind speed.
• GMTI: MTI from an airborne platform, target measurement accuracy in range and in angle; clutter Doppler spread Tracking Radar. Monopulse and conical scan angle- trackers; range and velocity gates for range and Doppler tracking; angle-tracking errors; track-while-scan systems; continuity tracking
Synthetic Aperture Radar: cross range resolution, unfocussed SAR, focussed SAR, array length, array processing, resolution, Doppler Beam Sharpening.

RADAR Electronic Warfare

• Radar ES: Operational use; Calculation of ES sensitivity; The radar/ES detection battle; The requirements for a quiet radar; The ES process; Observable parameters; Antenna configurations for AOA measurement; Probability of intercept; Intercept analysis; Signal Sorting.
• Radar EA: Jamming techniques and strategies; SJNR calculations; range-gate and velocity-gate pull-off; angle deception against monopulse trackers; deception and decoy techniques; DRFMs.
• Radar ED: Frequency and PRF agility; polarisation diversity; power management; sidelobe suppression; dual-band technique.
• Low probability of intercept radar waveforms: Power management, wideband FM, PSK: pseudo-random phase coding (maximal length sequences), poly-phase. Coding (Frank, P1, 2, 3, 4 codes), FSK: frequency hopping (Costas sequences), hybrid approaches.
• Anti-Radiation Missile Seekers: ARM operational modes and impact on seeker, monopulse seeker design, detection ranges, example designs.

Who should attend


Ioannis Vagias

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