Areas of expertise
- Aerospace Manufacturing
- Computing, Simulation & Modelling
- Power Systems & Turbines
- Structures and Materials
- Welding and Laser Processing
Dr Yongle Sun is a Lecturer in Additive Manufacture. He obtained BSc (2009) and MSc (2011) in Mechanics at Xi'an Jiaotong University and PhD (2015) in Mechanical Engineering at The University of Manchester. Before joining Cranfield University, he worked as a research associate in modelling of nuclear manufacturing processes at University of Manchester. His research is closely linked to energy (nuclear, gas, etc.) and aerospace industries.
Yongle has over 10-year research experience tackling the scientific and application challenges associated with engineering materials and manufacturing processes, broadly encompassing the mechanics and manufacturing techniques for metallic alloys, lightweight protective cellular solids, and thermal barrier coatings. These materials (or material systems) and the ways to process them play crucial roles in underpinning our energy and aerospace industries.
Yongle's expertise and research lies in revealing and utilising the relationships between manufacturing processes, micro-/meso-scale features and mechanical properties of engineering materials and structural components. He has been developing numerical and theoretical models capable of capturing multiple physical factors across different length and time scales, to understand key mechanisms controlling material behaviour and manufacturing quality, providing practical solutions to engineering problems. He is also actively involved in experimental characterisations and measurements to validate and complement the modelling of additive manufacturing, arc / laser / electron-beam welding, material response to impact loads, oxide growth-induced stress, etc.
Examples of Yongle's contribution to his research fields include: (1) simulating and elucidating the mechanisms for rolling-enabled mitigation of residual stress and distortion in wire arc additive manufacturing; (2) development of modelling and controlling approaches to weld dilution, in-process tempering, inter-part opening/sliding gap distortion, and transient and residual stresses in fusion welding; (3) revealing small-scale mechanisms that determine the quasi-static and dynamic compressive behaviours of metallic foams and honeycombs; (4) understanding the oxide growth-induced stress, thermal / residual stress, and failure mechanism of thermal barrier coating systems.
Yongle's achievements in research have been demonstrated through scholarly / engineering publications and industrial applications. He is the first author of 16 research papers published in leading journals and a (corresponding) co-author of other >30 journal papers, with a H-index of 18 according to Google Scholar. His PhD research on image-based characterisation and modelling of lightweight energy-absorbing cellular materials constituted part of the innovative application of new techniques in X-ray imaging, for which University of Manchester was awarded Queen's Anniversary Prizes, and Yongle was selected to attend the awarding ceremony held in Buckingham Palace. One of his first-authored papers is indexed as the No. 1 on the list of most cited International Journal of Impact Engineering Articles (those published after 2017). His research findings about arc and electron-beam welding have been applied in UK nuclear energy industry to address the technical challenges (e.g., welding quality and structural integrity) associated with new nuclear manufacturing, as part of the outcome from NNUMAN and MATTEAR projects with total funding of £9M.
The following research topics are available for PhD study programme:
- 1. Modelling-informed efficient mitigation of distortion and residual stress in large-scale additive manufacturing;
- 2. Inherent strain method for efficient prediction and evaluation of residual stress and distortion in wire-based additive manufacturing;
- 3. Modelling of in-process rolling, peening, active cooling or other mechanical working and heat treatment for metal additive manufacturing;
- 4. Finite element heat source and weld bead profile modelling informed by molten pool fluid dynamics;
- 5. Lattice structure printing and optimisation using metal wire additive manufacturing;
- 6. Residual stress and distortion of additively manufactured parts made of alloys subject to solid state phase transformation;
- 7. Hybrid additive manufacturing: design, development and evaluation.
Applications for PhD study are welcome! The above research topics are closely linked to an ongoing £7M NEWAM research programme (https://newam.uk/).
Please contact Dr. Yongle Sun or the admission team of the Manufacturing & Materials Theme for more details about the PhD research opportunity.
Yongle's current research is focused on modelling and digital twinning of metal additive manufacturing (particularly for wire-based directed energy deposition processes). He is working on bridging the highly predictive but less efficient mechanistic models at small scales, as derived from fundamental principles, with more versatile and efficient but partially empirical models at large scales, which are best suited for engineering analysis. Ultimately, his work would lead to an integrated cross-scale and multi-physics modelling approach for predicting, understanding and controlling the molten pool, grain growth, solid state phase transformation, distortion and transient / residual stress in metal additive manufacturing.
Yongle has been contributing to his research fields as an author of many research papers, as wells as a reviewer for over 30 international journals (e.g., Additive Manufacturing, Acta Materialia, International Journal of Plasticity, Virtual and Physical Prototyping). He has been also actively engaging with energy and aerospace industries for applying his research outcomes in making real-world difference. Currently, he is a co-investigator for three large research projects on metal wire-based additive manufacturing (NEWAM, SAM and I-Break).
Yongle also serves the research / industry community through the following roles:
- - Member, Manufacturing Process Simulation Working Group and Metallic Additive Manufacturing Focus Group; NAFEMS, 2020 – Present
- - Member, BSI WEE/37/-/4 Residual Stress Panel; The British Standards Institution, 2022 – Present
- - Topic / Review Editor, Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, Frontiers in Materials; Frontiers Media S.A., 2020 – Present
- - Topic / Guest Editor, (1) Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing; (2) Coatings; (3) Metals. MDPI, 2020 – Present
Yongle's teaching-related activities include
- - Course director for Metal Additive Manufacturing MSc course (2022 – Present)
- - Module leader for the module of Finite Element Analysis for Additive Manufacturing (2020 – Present)
- - Teaching Finite Element Analysis for Welding in the module of Welding Systems and Research Methods (2022 – Present)
- Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Innovate UK
- GE Avio, SABCA, Wood Plc, Rolls-Royce, EDF
- UK Nuclear Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre
Articles In Journals
- Gornyakov V, Sun Y, Ding J & Williams S (2022) Modelling and optimising hybrid process of wire arc additive manufacturing and high-pressure rolling, Materials and Design, 223 (November) Article No. 111121. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.19199765
- Sun Y, Smith M, Dutilleul T & Jones S (2022) Assessing and mitigating the distortion and stress during electron beam welding of a large shell-flange structure, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 199 (October) Article No. 104772. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.20407119
- Wang C, Sun Y, Chen G, Chen X, Ding J, Suder W, Diao C & Williams S (2022) A simplified modelling approach for thermal behaviour analysis in hybrid plasma arc-laser additive manufacturing, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 195 (October) Article No. 123157.
- Gornyakov V, Ding J, Sun Y & Williams S (2022) Understanding and designing post-build rolling for mitigation of residual stress and distortion in wire arc additively manufactured components, Materials and Design, 213 (January) Article No. 110335. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.15060285.v1
- Gornyakov V, Sun Y, Ding J & Williams S (2022) Efficient determination and evaluation of steady-state thermal-mechanical variables generated by wire arc additive manufacturing and high pressure rolling, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 30 (1) Article No. 014001. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.14832180
- Jin X, Yang J, Sun Y, Li P, Hou C, Zhao Y & Fan X (2021) Fabrication and characterisation of high-performance joints made of ZrB2-SiC ultra-high temperature ceramics, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 41 (15) 7412-7422.
- Sun YL, Vasileiou AN, Pickering EJ, Collins J, Obasi G, Akrivos V & Smith MC (2021) Impact of weld restraint on the development of distortion and stress during the electron beam welding of a low-alloy steel subject to solid state phase transformation, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 196 (April) Article No. 106244.
- Jiang P, Yang L, Sun Y, Li D & Wang T (2021) Local residual stress evolution of highly irregular thermally grown oxide layer in thermal barrier coatings, Ceramics International, 47 (8) 10990-10995.
- Liu P, Jiang P, Sun Y, Xu R, Wang T & Zhang W (2021) Numerical analysis of stress evolution in thermal barrier coating system during two-stage growth of heterogeneous oxide, Ceramics International, 47 (10 Part A) 14311-14319.
- Jiang P, Yang L, Sun Y, Li D & Wang T (2021) Nondestructive measurements of residual stress in air plasma‐sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 104 (3) 1455-1464.
- Feng J, Li L, Chen Y, Tian Y, Sun Y, Zhang X & Zhang J (2021) Inhomogeneous microstructure and fatigue crack propagation of thick-section high strength steel joint welded using double-sided hybrid fiber laser-arc welding, Optics and Laser Technology, 134 (February) Article No. 106668.
- Bai M, Chen Y, Sun Y & Xiao P (2021) Mitigation of platinum depletion in platinum diffused single phase bond coat on CMSX-4 superalloy, Coatings, 11 (6) Article No. 669.
- Zhao Y, Sun F, Jiang P & Sun Y (2021) Effects of roughness on stresses in an oxide scale formed on a superalloy substrate, Coatings, 11 (4) Article No. 479.
- Gornyakov V, Sun Y, Ding J & Williams S (2021) Computationally efficient models of high pressure rolling for wire arc additively manufactured components, Applied Sciences, 11 (1) Article No. 402. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.13514419
- Sun YL, Hamelin CJ, Vasileiou AN, Xiong Q, Flint TF, Obasi G, Francis JA, Smith MC, (2020) Effects of dilution on the hardness and residual stresses in multipass steel weldments, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 187 (November) Article No. 104154.
- YL Sun, G Obasi, CJ Hamelin, AN Vasileiou, TF Flint, JA Francis & MC Smith (2019) Characterisation and modelling of tempering during multi-pass welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 270 118-131.
- Sun YL, Obasi G, Hamelin CJ, Vasileiou AN, Flint TF, Balakrishnan J, Smith MC & Francis JA (2019) Effects of dilution on alloy content and microstructure in multi-pass steel welds, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 265 71-86.
- Xu Z, Meng K, Yang C, Zhang W, Fan X & Sun Y (2019) Elasto-plastic behaviour of transversely isotropic cellular materials with inner gas pressure, Metals, 9 (8) Article No. 901.
- Xie F, Sun Y, Li D, Bai Y & Zhang W (2019) Modelling of catastrophic stress development due to mixed oxide growth in thermal barrier coatings, Ceramics International, 45 (9) 11353-11361.
- Meng KP, Chai CG, Sun YL, Wang W, Wang QY & Li QM (2019) Cutting-induced end surface effect on compressive behaviour of aluminium foams, European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids, 75 (May-June) 410-418.
- Ge W, Wang L, Sun Y & Liu X (2019) An efficient method to generate random distribution of fibers in continuous fiber reinforced composites, Polymer Composites, 40 (12) 4763-4770.
- Sun YL, Hamelin CJ, Flint TF, Vasileiou AN, Francis JA & Smith MC (2019) Prediction of dilution and its impact on the metallurgical and mechanical behavior of a multipass steel weldment, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 141 (6) Article No. 061405/PVT-18-1143.
- Rathod DW, Sun Y, Obasi G & Roy MJ (2019) Effect of multiple passes on Lüders/yield plateaus, microstructure and tensile behaviour of narrow-gap thick-section weld plates, Journal of Materials Science, 54 (19) 12833-12850.
- Wang X, Fan X, Sun Y, Xu R & Jiang P (2019) Modelling and analysis of the oxide growth coupling behaviour of thermal barrier coatings, Journal of Materials Science, 54 (14) 10270-10283.
- Obasi G, Pickering EJ, Vasileiou AN, Sun YL, Rathod D, Preuss M, Francis JA & Smith MC (2019) Measurement and prediction of phase transformation kinetics in a nuclear steel during rapid thermal cycles, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 50A (4) 1715-1731.
- TF Flint, YL Sun, Q Xiong, MC Smith & JA Francis (2019) Phase-field simulation of grain boundary evolution in microstructures containing second-phase particles with heterogeneous thermal properties, Scientific Reports, 9 Article No. 18426.
- XC Jin, YL Sun, C Hou, XB Wang, GY He & XL Fan (2019) Investigation into cooling-rate dependent residual stresses in ZrB2–SiC composites using improved Raman spectroscopy method, Ceramics International, 45 (17 B) 22564-22570.
- Chen Y, Fan X, Sun Y & Zhang W (2018) Effect of tensile load on high temperature oxidation of CoNiCrAlY coating, Surface and Coatings Technology, 352 (October) 399-405.
- Jin X, Hou C, Fan X, Sun Y, Lv J & Lu C (2018) Investigation on the static and dynamic behaviors of non-pneumatic tires with honeycomb spokes, Composite Structures, 187 (March) 27-35.
- Sun Y & Li QM (2018) Dynamic compressive behaviour of cellular materials: a review of phenomenon, mechanism and modelling, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 112 (February) 74-115.
- Jiang P, Fan X, Sun Y, Wang H, Su L & Wang T (2018) Thermal‐cycle dependent residual stress within the crack‐susceptible zone in thermal barrier coating system, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 101 (9) 4256-4261.
- Jiang P, Fan X, Sun Y, Li D & Wang T (2018) Bending-driven failure mechanism and modelling of double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coating system, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 130 (January) 11-20.
- Feng JC, Rathod DW, Roy MJ, Francis JA, Guo W, Irvine NM, Vasileiou AN, Sun YL, Smith MC & Li L (2017) An evaluation of multipass narrow gap laser welding as a candidate process for the manufacture of nuclear pressure vessels, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 157 (November) 43-50.
- Jiang P, Fan X, Sun Y, Li D, Li B & Wang T (2017) Competition mechanism of interfacial cracks in thermal barrier coating system, Materials and Design, 132 (October) 559-566.
- YL Sun, MJ Roy, AN Vasileiou, MC Smith, JA Francis & F Hosseinzadeh (2017) Evaluation of errors associated with cutting-induced plasticity in residual stress measurements using the contour method, Experimental Mechanics, 57 (5) 719-734.
- Yongle Sun, Xun Zhang, Zhushan Shao & QM Li (2017) Image-based correlation between the meso-scale structure and deformation of closed-cell foam, Materials Science and Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructures and Processing, 688 (March) 27-39.
- Sun Y, Amirrasouli B, Razavi SB, Li QM, Lowe T & Withers P (2016) The variation in elastic modulus throughout the compression of foam materials, Acta Materialia, 110 (May) 161-174.
- Sun Y, Li Q, Lowe T, McDonald S & Withers P (2016) Investigation of strain-rate effect on the compressive behaviour of closed-cell aluminium foam by 3D image-based modelling, Materials and Design, 89 215-224.
- Yongle Sun, QM Li, SA McDonald & PJ Withers (2016) Determination of the constitutive relation and critical condition for the shock compression of cellular solids, Mechanics of Materials, 99 (August) 26-36.
- Sun Y & Li Q (2015) Effect of entrapped gas on the dynamic compressive behaviour of cellular solids, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 63 50-67.
- Su L, Zhang W, Sun Y & Wang T (2014) Effect of TGO creep on top-coat cracking induced by cyclic displacement instability in a thermal barrier coating system, Surface and Coatings Technology, 254 (September) 410-417.
- Sun Y, Zhang W, Li J & Wang T (2013) Local stress around cap-like portions of anisotropically and nonuniformly grown oxide layer in thermal barrier coating system, Journal of Materials Science, 48 (17) 5962-5982.
- Sun Y, Li J, Zhang W & Wang T (2013) Local stress evolution in thermal barrier coating system during isothermal growth of irregular oxide layer, Surface and Coatings Technology, 216 (February) 237-250.
- Sun YL, Vasileiou AN, Collins J, Obasi G, Pickering EJ, Akrivos V & Smith MC (2019) Modelling of electron beam welding for advanced nuclear reactors. In: 15th International Conference on Engineering Structural Integrity and 2019 International Symposium on Structural Integrity, Cambridge, 8-9 May 2019.
- Sun Y, Smith M, Flint T, Hamelin C, Vasileiou A & Francis J (2018) Modelling of dilution effects on microstructure and residual stress in a multi-pass weldment. In: ASME 2018 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2018), Prague, 15-20 July 2018.
- Smith M, Rathod D, Irvine N, Vasileiou A, Francis J & Sun Y (2017) A review of welding research within the New Nuclear Manufacturing (NNUMAN) programme. In: ASME 2017 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Waikoloa, 16-20 July 2017.
- Sun Y, Hamelin C, Smith M & Edwards L (2016) Predicting an optimal inter-pass temperature to mitigate residual stress and distortion in ferritic steel weldments. In: ASME 2016 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Vancouver, 17-21 July 2016.
- Sun Y, Li Q & Withers P (2015) Strain-rate sensitivity of foam materials: A numerical study using 3D image-based finite element model. In: DYMAT 2015 - 11th International Conference on the Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Materials under Dynamic Loading, Lugano, 7-11 September 2015.
- Sun YL, Hamelin CJ, Flint TF, Xiong Q, Vasileiou AN, Pantelis I, Francis JA & Smith MC (2019) Multi-pass ferritic steel weld modelling: Phase transformation and residual stress. In: Mathematical modelling of weld phenomena 12, Verlag.
- Flint TF, Xiong Q, Sun YL, Vasileiou AN, Smith MC & Francis JA (2019) Prediction of grain boundary evolution in an titanium alloy substrate using a novel phase field model coupled with a semi-analytical thermal solution. In: Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena 12, Verlag, p. 861-874.
- YL Sun, T Lowe, SA McDonald, QM Li & PJ Withers (2014) In situ investigation and image-based modelling of aluminium foam compression using micro X-ray computed tomography. In: Visual Computing, Springer.