Contact Dr Saurav Goel
Areas of expertise
- Manufacturing of Functional Materials
- Precision Engineering
- Smart Materials
- Surface Engineering
- Sustainable Manufacturing
- Welding and Laser Processing
I have dual affiliations. My primary position is at London South Bank University where I am working as a Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Division and my secondary position is at the Surface and Precision Centre of Cranfield University where I am supporting my PhD students. My current research lies on the footings of Material Oriented manufacturing and I inform my research using Multi-scale modelling techniques involving the use of finite element as well as atomic simulations.
To date, my research is supported by the funding I've acquired through industries and funding bodies such as the EPSRC, Royal Academy of Engineering, Royal Society, British Counsil to name a few.
I began my academic journey with a rich Industrial experience of 3 years as a Senior Engineer in India's largest construction Conglomerate, Larsen and Toubro Limited following completion of my undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering from NERIST, India in 2007. I obtained a PhD from Heriot-Watt University, Scotland in the year 2013. I became a Full Professor by 2022.
During my career, I earned the nomination for best teaching at Queen's Belfast and an award of best supervision at Cranfield. At LSBU, I am leading a research group of 10 people with 4 Post Docs having equal gender balance.
I've worked closely with students from “China, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India,
Japan, Poland, Germany, France, UK, Kuwait, Sweden, Denmark, Spain etc”. To conclude, I would welcome any student who is motivated to join the exciting opportunity of doing amazing research in the field of Ultra-Precision Engineering.
I've several PhD studentships in my research group in subjects related to machining, simulations, tribology, measurements and materials. Please contact me to find out which one suits you the most.
I am Associate Director of the EPSRC's NetworkPlus in "Digitalised Surface Manufacturing" (https://digitalisedsurfacemanufacturing.com/) which is a collaborative network originating from the University of Manchester and now spreading to almost every continent. I am also the Co-Director of the EPSRC's Centre for Doctoral Training in Ultra Precision Engineering (EP/K503241/1 and EP/L016567/1) where I support the University of Cambridge following staff changes in 2017. Recently, I’ve used my skills to develop newer projects while using my experimental Precision Engineering knowledge to combat the current challenges associated with Detector materials to improve the performance of PET imaging systems (EP/S013652/1) that will benefit mankind. Additionally, I am working on modelling the mesoscale boundaries to model coastal erosion (EP/T001100/1) and to develop next-generation of self-sensing coatings (EP/T024607/1).
I specialises in Precision processing of “difficult to cut
materials”, free form shapes, coating deposition techniques such as the Diamond like
carbon films, surface metrology, and material characterisation and in creating “digital twins” of these processes. I’ve
been working on developing hybrid and sequential techniques to machine
challenging materials like steel, silicon, glass, silicon carbide, tungsten etc
with the highest possible precision attainable by bulk techniques. Recently, we are working on Responsive Roll to Roll Manufacturing systems and the next-generation bio3dprinting systems as well.
I was also an active part of the EU Cost Action CA18125 where we developed Critical raw materials subjected to extreme conditions (http://crm-extreme.eu/).
I am currently leading the lab on "Nature-inspired Precision Responsive Manufacturing Group" at LSBU from where we are working closely with a team of Doctors to develop antibacterial, virucidal surfaces using a wide range of techniques while suitably instrumenting the processes to record in-process data for monitoring and diagnosis of the manufacturing operations. To date. I have published 70+ Journal articles with h-index> 25 and cumulative citations > 2000. I am the Associate Editor of the Journal "Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems".
1. National Physical Laboratory (http://www.npl.co.uk/)
2. Science and Technologies Facilities Council (https://stfc.ukri.org/)
3. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (https://epsrc.ukri.org/)
4. Milton Keynes University Hospital (www.mkhospital.nhs.uk/)
5. Sophion BioScience, Denmark
6. Cost Action (Horizon 2020)
7. Kennametal, Germany
9. Adama Innovations, Ireland
10. Micromaterials, UK
11. AWE, UK
12. Cranfield Precision (Five Landis)
Articles In Journals
- Fan P, Goel S, Luo X & Upadhyaya HM (2022) Atomic-scale friction studies on single-crystal gallium arsenide using atomic force microscope and molecular dynamics simulation, Nanomanufacturing and Metrology, 5 (1) 39-49. Dataset/s: 10.15129/7e090adb-7c67-41c5-aaf2-bc897caffe2d
- Hawi S, Goel S, Kumar V, Pearce O, Nishio Ayre W & Ivanova EP (2022) Critical review of nanopillar-based mechanobactericidal systems, ACS Applied Nano Materials, Available online 5 January 2022 (1).
- Khalili MH, Asfar A, Zhang R, Wilson S, Dossi E, Goel S, Impey SA & Aria AI (2022) Thermal response of multi-layer UV crosslinked PEGDA hydrogels, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 195 (January) Article No. 109805. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.15169203.v1
- Narisetty V, Amraoui Y, Abdullah A, Ahmad E, Agrawal D, Parameswaran B, Pandey A, Goel S & Kumar V (2021) High yield recovery of 2,3-butanediol from fermented broth accumulated on xylose rich sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using aqueous two-phase extraction system, Bioresource Technology, 337 (October) Article No. 125463.
- Yin J, Bai Q, Goel S, Zhou P & Zhang B (2021) An analytical model to predict the depth of sub-surface damage for grinding of brittle materials, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 33 (May) 454-464.
- Fan P, Goel S, Luo X, Yan Y, Geng Y, He Y & Wang Y (2021) Molecular dynamics simulation of AFM tip-1 based hot scratching of nanocrystalline GaAs, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 130 (August) Article No. 105832. Dataset/s: 10.15129/6fd249b4-861f-4f7b-a34f-ad336205fa64
- Fan P, Goel S, Luo X, Yan Y, Geng Y & He Y (2021) Origins of ductile plasticity in a polycrystalline gallium arsenide during scratching: MD simulation study, Applied Surface Science, 552 (June) Article No. 149489. Dataset/s: 10.15129/ed05ea22-ab4c-4dd7-af36-4dfb91bd1cef
- Shishkin A, Goel G, Baronins J, Ozolins J & Hoskins C. Goel S (2021) Using circular economy principles to recycle materials in guiding the design of a wet scrubber-reactor for indoor air disinfection from coronavirus and other pathogens, Environmental Technology and Innovation, 22 (May) Article No. 101429. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.13708369
- Hawi S, Gharavian S, Burda M, Goel S, Loftian S, Khaleque T & Yazdani Nezhad H (2021) Development of carbonaceous tin-based solder composite achieving unprecedented joint performance, Emergent Materials, 4 (6) 1679-1696. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.14815404.v1
- Katiyar NK, Goel G & Goel S (2021) Emergence of machine learning in the development of high entropy alloy and their prospects in advanced engineering applications, Emergent Materials, 4 (6) 1635-1648.
- Pan Y, Zhou P, Yan Y, Agrawal A, Wang Y, Guo D & Goel S (2021) New insights into the methods for predicting ground surface roughness in the age of digitalisation, Precision Engineering, 67 (January) 393-418.
- Fan P, Goel S, Luo X, Yan Y, Geng Y & Wang Z (2021) An atomistic investigation on the wear of diamond during atomic force microscope tip-based nanomachining of gallium arsenide, Computational Materials Science, 187 (February) Article No. 110115. Dataset/s: 10.15129/01270576-2ee6-452c-927a-b5a0a89a0921
- Faisal NH, Sellami N, Venturi F, Hussain F, Hussain T, Mallick T, Sukki FM, Bishop A, Upadhyaya H, Katiyar NK & Goel S (2021) Large-scale manufacturing route to metamaterial coatings using thermal spray techniques and their response to solar radiation, Emergent Materials, Available online 4 July 2021 (6). Dataset/s: 10.48526/rgu-wt-1369280
- Katiyar NK, Goel G, Hawi S & Goel S (2021) Nature-inspired materials: emerging trends and prospects, NPG Asia Materials, 13, (1) Article No. 56. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.12775685
- Larranaga-Altuna M, Zabala A, Llavori I, Pearce O, Nguyen DT, Caro J, Mescheder H, Endrino JL, Goel G, Ayre WN, Seenivasagam RK, Tripathy DK, Armstrong J & Goel S (2021) Bactericidal surfaces: an emerging 21st century ultra-precision manufacturing and materials puzzle, Applied Physics Reviews, 8 (2) Article No. 021303. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.12925706.v2
- Zlatanovic DL, Balos S, Bergmann JP, Rasche S, Zavsnik J, Panchal V, Sidjanin L & Goel S (2021) In-depth microscopic characterisation of the weld faying interface revealing stress-induced metallurgical transformations during friction stir spot welding, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 164 (May) Article No. 103716. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.12526628
- Zlatanovic DL. Balos S, Bergmann JP, Rasche S, Pecanac M & Goel S (2021) Influence of tool geometry and process parameters on the properties of friction stir spot welded multiple (AA 5754 H111) aluminium sheets, Materials, 14 (5) Article No. 1157.
- Popov VV, Grilli ML, Koptyug A, Jaworska L, Katz-Demyanetz A, Klobčar D, Balos S, Postolnyi BO & Goel S (2021) Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing using critical raw materials: a review, Materials, 14 (4) Article No. 909.
- Novák P, Belezze T, Cabibbo M, Gamsjäger E, Wiessner M, Rajnovic D, Jaworska L, Hanus P, Shishkin A, Goel G & Goel S (2021) Solutions of critical raw materials issues regarding iron-based alloys, Materials, 14 (4) Article No. 899.
- Popov V. Fleisher A, Muller-Kamskii G, Shishkin A, Katz-Demyanetz A, Travitzky N & Goel S (2021) Novel hybrid method to additively manufacture denser graphite structures using Binder jetting, Scientific Reports, 11 (1) Article No. 2438. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.13340945.v1
- Khatri N, Barkachary BM, Muneeswaran B, Al-Sayegh R, Luo X & Goel S (2020) Surface defects incorporated diamond machining of silicon, International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing, 2 (4) Article No. 045102. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.12442886.v1
- Wei H, Yan S, Goel S & Menary G (2020) Characterization and modelling the mechanical behaviour of poly(l-lactic acid) for the manufacture of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds by stretch blow moulding, International Journal of Material Forming, 13 (1) 43-57.
- Goel S, Knaggs M, Goel G, Zhou XW, Upadhyaya HM, Thakur VK, Kumar V, Bizarri G, Tiwari A, Murphy A, Stukowski A & Matthews A (2020) Horizons of modern molecular dynamics simulation in digitalized solid freeform fabrication with advanced materials, Materials Today Chemistry, 18 (December) Article No. 100356.
- Huang N, Yan Y, Zhou P, Kang R, Guo D & Goel S (2020) Elastic recovery of monocrystalline silicon during ultra-fine rotational grinding, Precision Engineering, 65 (September) 64-71.
- Jadidi MF, Özer HO, Goel S, Kilpatrick JI, McEvoy N, McCloskey D, Donegan JF & Cross GLW (2020) Distribution of shallow NV centers in diamond revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy and nanomachining, Carbon, 167 (October) 114-121.
- Zlatanovic DL, Balos S, Bergmann JP, Kohler T, Gratzel M, Sidjanin L & Goel S (2020) An experimental study on lap joining of multiple sheets of aluminium alloy (AA 5754) using friction stir spot welding, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 107 (April) 3093-3107.
- Kumar D, Goel S, Gosvami NN & Jain J (2020) Towards an improved understanding of plasticity, friction and wear mechanisms in precipitate containing AZ91 Mg alloy, Materialia, 10 (May) Article No. 100640.
- Daminabo SC, Goel S, Grammatikos SA, Yazdani Nezhad H & Thakur VK (2020) Fused deposition modeling-based additive manufacturing (3D printing): techniques for polymer material systems, Materials Today Chemistry, 16 (June) Article No. 100248.
- Montañez ND, Carreño H, Escobar P, Estupiñán HA, Peña DY, Goel S & Endrino JL (2020) Functional evaluation and testing of a newly developed Teleost's Fish Otolith derived biocomposite coating for healthcare, Scientific Reports, 10 (1) Article No. 258.
- Goel S, Hawi S, Goel G, Kumar Thakur V, Pearce O, Hoskins C, Hussain T, Agrawal A, Upadhyaya HM, Cross G & Barber AH (2020) Resilient and agile engineering solutions to address societal challenges such as coronavirus pandemic, Materials Today Chemistry, 17 (September) Article No. 100300. Dataset/s: 10.17862/cranfield.rd.12376889
- Zabala A, Infante-García D, Giner E, Goel S, Endrino JL & Llavori I (2020) On the use of the theory of critical distances with mesh control for fretting fatigue lifetime assessment, Tribology International, 142 (February) Article No. 105985.
- Dennis A, Goel S, Al-Sayegh R & O'Neill W (2020) The importance of wavelength for tight temperature control during µ-laser assisted machining, Journal of Micromanufacturing, Available online 22 May 2020.
- Rizzo A, Goel S, Grilli ML, Iglesias R, Jaworska L, Lapkovskis V, Novak P, Postolyni BO & Valerini D (2020) The critical raw materials in cutting tools for machining applications: a review, Materials, 13 (6) Article No. 1377.
- Giusca CL & Goel S (2019) Improved and simpler estimation of scale linearity contribution to topography measurement, Precision Engineering, 60 (November) 368-373.
- Liu C, Goel S, Llavori I, Stolf P, Giusca CL, Zabala A, Kohlscheen J, Paiva JM, Endrino JL, Veldhuis SC & Fox Rabinovich GS (2019) Benchmarking of several material constitutive models for tribology, wear, and other mechanical deformation simulations of Ti6Al4V, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 97 (September) 126-137.
- Stolf P, Paiva JM, Ahmed YS, Endrino JL, Goel S & Veldhuis SC (2019) The role of high-pressure coolant in the wear characteristics of WC-Co tools during the cutting of Ti-6Al-4V, Wear, Available on 12 October 2019 Article No. 203090.
- Balos S, Dramicanin M, Janjatovic P, Zabunov I, Pilic B, Goel S & Szutkowska M (2019) Suppressing the use of critical raw materials in joining of AISI 304 stainless steel using activated tungsten inert gas welding, Metals, 9 (11) Article No. 1187.
- Goel S, Martinez FD, Chavoshi SZ, Khatri N & Giusca C (2018) Molecular dynamics simulation of the elliptical vibration-assisted machining (EVAM) of pure iron, Journal of Micromanufacturing, 1 (1) 6-19.
- Goel S, Iñigo Llavori AZ, Giusca C, Veldhuis SC & Endrino JL (2018) The possibility of performing FEA analysis of a contact loading process fed by the MD simulation data, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 134 (November) 79-80.
- Goel S, Cross G, Stukowski A, Gamsjäger E, Beake B & Agrawal A (2018) Designing nanoindentation simulation studies by appropriate indenter choices: Case study on single crystal tungsten, Computational Materials Science, 152 (September) 196-210.
- Beake BD & Goel S (2018) Incipient plasticity in tungsten during nanoindentation: Dependence on surface roughness, probe radius and crystal orientation, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 75 (September) 63-69.
- Goel S & Stukowski A (2018) Comment on “Incipient plasticity of diamond during nanoindentation” by Xu C, Liu C and Wang H, RSC Advances, 2017, 7, 36093, RSC Advances, 8 (10) 5136-5137.
- Kovalchenko AM, Goel S, Zakiev IM, Pashchenko EA & Al-Sayegh R (2018) Suppressing scratch induced brittle fracture in silicon by geometric design modification of the abrasive grits, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Early online (1).
- Faisal NH, Ahmed R, Goel S & Graham C (2018) Future of nanoindentation in archaeometry, Journal of Materials Research, 33 (17) 2515-2532.
- Faisal NH, Prathuru AK, Goel S, Ahmed R, Droubi MG, Beake BD & Fu YQ (2017) Cyclic nanoindentation and nano-impact fatigue mechanisms of functionally graded TiN/TiNi film, Shape Memory and Superelasticity, 3 (2) 149-167.
- Chavoshi SZ, Goel S & Morantz P (2017) Current trends and future of sequential micro-machining processes on a single machine tool, Materials and Design, 127 (August) 37-53.
- Chavoshi SZ, Xu S & Goel S (2017) Addressing the discrepancy of finding equilibrium melting point of silicon using MD simulations, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 473 (2202) Article No. 20170084.
- Goel S, Kovalchenko A, Stukowski A & Cross G (2016) Influence of microstructure on the cutting behaviour of silicon, Acta Materialia, 105 (February) 464-478.
- Rashid WB, Goel S, Davim JP & Joshi SN (2016) Parametric design optimization of hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (69 HRC), The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 82 (1-4) 451-462.
- Rashid WB & Goel S (2016) Advances in the surface defect machining (SDM) of hard steels, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 23 (August) 37-46.
- Chavoshi SZ, Goel S & Luo X (2016) Molecular dynamics simulation investigation on the plastic flow behaviour of silicon during nanometric cutting, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 24 (1) Article No. 15002.
- Chavoshi SZ, Goel S & Luo X (2016) Influence of temperature on the anisotropic cutting behaviour of single crystal silicon: A molecular dynamics simulation investigation, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 23 (August) 201-210.
- Agrawal A, Goel S, Rashid WB & Price M (2015) Prediction of surface roughness during hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (69 HRC), Applied Soft Computing, 30 (May) 279-286.
- Goel S, Beake B, Chan CW, Faisal NH & Dunne N (2015) Twinning anisotropy of tantalum during nanoindentation, Materials Science and Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructures and Processing, 627 249-261.
- Goel S, Yan JW, Luo XC & Agrawal A (2014) Incipient plasticity in 4H-SiC during quasistatic nanoindentation, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 34 330-337.
- Goel S, Agrawal A & Faisal NH (2014) Can a carbon nano-coating resist metallic phase transformation in silicon substrate during nanoimpact?, Wear, 315 (1-2) 38-41.
- Goel S (2014) The current understanding on the diamond machining of silicon carbide, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47 (24) 1-36.
- Goel S, Faisal NH, Luo XC, Yan JW & Agrawal A (2014) Nanoindentation of polysilicon and single crystal silicon: Molecular dynamics simulation and experimental validation, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47 (27) Article No. 275304.
- Goel S, Luo X, Agrawal A & Reuben R (2014) Diamond machining of silicon: A review of advances in molecular dynamics simulation, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 88 131-164.
- Goel S, Joshi S, Abdelal G & Agrawal A (2014) Molecular dynamics simulation of nanoindentation of Fe3C and Fe4C, Materials Science and Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructures and Processing, 597 (March) 331-341.
- Goel S, Rashid WB, Luo XC, Agrawal A & Jain VK (2014) A theoretical assessment of surface defect machining and hot machining of nanocrystalline silicon carbide, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 136 (2) 021015-1-021015-12.
- Faisal NH, Ahmed R, Goel S & Fu YQ (2014) Influence of test methodology and probe geometry on nanoscale fatigue failure of diamond-like carbon film, Surface and Coatings Technology, 242 42-53.
- Goel S, Faisal NH, Ratia V, Agrawal A & Stukowski A (2014) Atomistic investigation on the structure–property relationship during thermal spray nanoparticle impact, Computational Materials Science, 84 163-174.
- Goel S, Stukowski A, Luo X, Agrawal A & Reuben R (2013) Anisotropy of single-crystal 3C-SiC during nanometric cutting, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 21 (6) 1-20.
- Goel S, Luo X, Reuben R, Rashid WB & Sun J (2012) Simulation study of cutting forces, stresses and temperature during nanometric cutting of single crystal silicon, Key Engineering Materials, 496 223-228.
- Goel S, Stukowski A, Goel G, Luo X & Reuben R (2012) Nanotribology at high temperatures, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology , 3 (1) 586-588.
- Goel S, Lu X, Comley P, Reuben RL & Cox A (2012) Brittle-ductile transition during diamond turning of single crystal silicon carbide, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 65 15-21.
- Goel S & Parmar A (2012) An investigation on the colossal success of Larsen and Toubro Limited: Human resource management perspective, Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 20 (4) 1261-1273.
- Luo X, Goel S & Reuben RL (2012) A quantitative assessment of nanometric machinability of major polytypes of single crystal silicon carbide, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 32 (12) 3423-3434.
- Goel S, Luo X, Reuben RL & Pen H (2012) Influence of temperature and crystal orientation on tool wear during single point diamond turning of silicon, Wear, 284-285 65-72.
- Goel S, Luo X & Reuben RL (2012) Shear instability of nanocrystalline silicon carbide during nanometric cutting, Applied Physics Letters, 100 (23) Article No. 231902 - .
- Goel S, Luo X, Reuben R & Rashid WB (2011) Atomistic aspects of ductile responses of cubic silicon carbide during nanometric cutting, Nanoscale Research Letters, 6 (589) 1-9.
- Goel S, Luo X, Reuben R & Rashid WB (2011) Replacing diamond cutting tools with CBN for efficient nanometric cutting of silicon, Materials Letters, 68 507-509.
- Goel S, Luo X, Reuben R, Rashid WB & Sun J (2011) Single point diamond turning of single crystal silicon carbide: Molecular dynamic simulation study, Key Engineering Materials, 496 150-155.
- Goel S, Luo X & Reuben R (2011) Molecular dynamics simulation model for the quantitative assessment of tool wear during single point diamond turning of cubic silicon carbide, Computational Materials Science, 51 (1) 402-408.
- Goel S, Pen HM, Liang YC, Luo XC, Bai QS & Ritchie JM. (2011) Multiscale simulation of nanometric cutting of single crystal copper and its experimental validation, Computational Materials Science, 50 (12) 3431-3441.
- Hawi S, Dickins A, Pardal G, Giusca C, Pearce O & Goel S (2019) Fabrication of functionalised surfaces on gum metal (Ti-30Nb) using micromachining. In: 19th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (euspen), 2019, Bilbao, 3-7 June 2019.
- Zhao J, Giusca C & Goel S (2018) Manufacturing uncertainty: How reproducible is the depth of cut during turning of OFHC copper? (Extended abstract). In: 18th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (euspen), 2018, Venice, 4-8 June 2018.
- Goel S, Rashid WB, Mir A, Zeng S, Sun J & Luo X (2013) Development of the surface defect machining method for micro/nano scale material removal processes. In: 13th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology, Berlin, 27 May 2013.
- Goel S, Luo X, Stukowski A & Reuben RL (2012) Influence of nanoparticle coolant and crystal structure of the workpiece during nanometric cutting of silicon carbide. In: 12th International EUSPEN Conference, Stockholm, 4-7 June 2012.
- Kumar N, Goel G & Goel S (2022) Nanomaterials based biosensing: methods and principle of detection. In: Advanced Micro and Nano Manufacturing Technologies: Applications in Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Singapore: Springer Nature.
- Goel S, Chavoshi SZ & Murphy A (2017) Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) to study nanoscale machining processes. In: Nanofinishing Science and Technology: Basic and Advanced Finishing and Polishing Processes, Boca Raton, FL: CRC press, p. 499-548.