Contact Dr Ip-Shing Fan
Areas of expertise
- Aerospace Manufacturing
- Autonomous Systems
- Aviation Management & Operations
- Computing, Simulation & Modelling
- Defence manufacturing
- Industrial Automation
- Industrial Ergonomics and Human Factors
- Manufacturing Systems
- Product and Service Design
- Throughlife Engineering Services
- Vehicle Health Management
Fan is currently on the Education and Scholarship pathway.
He was born and studied in Hong Kong, graduated with First Class Honours in Industrial Engineering. He completed his graduate engineer training at Qualidux Industrial Co Ltd in Hong Kong. He was awarded the Commonwealth Scholarship and completed his PhD in Computer Integrated Manufacturing in Cranfield. After returning to Hong Kong, he worked as CADCAM Manager in Qualidux Industrial Co Ltd, responsible for the introduction of CAD, CAM, and CNC in plastic injection design and engineering.
In 1990, Fan started to work in The CIM Institute, endowed by IBM in Cranfield, to carry out research, education, and consultancy in new applications of computers in manufacturing. He led many European and UK funded research programmes to create new tools and methods in knowledge-based engineering design, business performance, quality management, supply chain, and complexity science.
He has a passion to understand the underlying reasons and develop better approaches to help organisations work more effectively. He looks at the world with a socio-technical lens to explore the complex interactions between people systems and technology systems. The knowledge span includes system engineering, business process analysis, quality and performance management system, organisation design and behaviour, technology induced change, human psychology and motivation. The application domains include aerospace, engineering, manufacturing, business services, IT, education, health, local government.
The complex dynamics of people factor in technology implementation prompted him to create a European research consortium fort the Framework 5 research project BEST - Better Enterprise System Implementation. The 12 partners, €4 million project created a body of knowledge that Fan worked to translate into the Cranfield MSc in Management and Information Systems teaching curriculum.
The teaching and consulting expertise in information systems development and implementation is being incorporated in the Cranfield Digitial Aviation Research Centre.
Suitable Master's projects in digital systems for aircraft maintenance and operations are available.
• Aviation IT systems development and implementaton (CAMO, MRO, ERP)
• MRO Engineers and Managers decision support on simulated scenarios
• Human Factors effect on MRO Engineers and Managers performance
• Wearables/AR for instructions delivery, remote support and sign-off
• Materials and tools tracking and optimisation – RFID, controlled dispensing
• Agile management of MRO maintenance aircraft, jobs, people, inventory, tools
• Materials and tools tracking and optimisation – RFID, controlled dispensing
• AI supported document reconciliation
• Hangar and ramp collision avoidance
• Remote inspection of aircraft upper surface
• NDT inspection and real-time assessment
• 3D printing of aircraft spares
• Digital twin for aircraft predictive health management
Dr Ip-Shing Fan is leading the Digital MRO and Hangar laboratories in the Cranfield DARTeC Initiative.
The complex is a realistic representation of airport ramp and hangar environment to study the interactions between aircraft, engineers, airport and hangar facilities, ground vehicles and drones.
The digital infrastructure support aircraft digital twins work to maintain the accurate configuration in the information world of airworthiness, as the engineering health status of the aircraft structure and systems to predict and prevent failures.
A number of consortia are being established to work in Paperless Aviation, Aircraft Inspection, Robotic Maintenance and Predictive Health Management.
Fan leads the MSc modules in Business Process Analysis and Engineering, and Business Change Management. He also contributes to the MSc module in Enterprise Systems and Industrial Cybersecurity challenges and Strategies.
Fan is the Chairman of the Bedford Branch of BCS.
He works with a wide range of engineering, IT and non-business organisations, including:
- The Boeing Company
- BAE Systems
Articles In Journals
- Lafiosca P & Fan IS (2020) Review of non-contact methods for automated aircraft inspections, Insight: Non-Destructive Testing & Condition Monitoring, 62 (12) 691-701.
- Binobaid S, Almeziny M & Fan IS (2017) Using an integrated information system to reduce interruptions and the number of non-relevant contacts in the inpatient pharmacy at tertiary hospital, Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 25 (5) 760-769.
- Jiang J, Fan IS, Muriel MA, Wen PF, Rua C, Yuanji L, Loizillon P & Mielnicka JM (2017) Simulation Modelling for Scenario Planning to Evaluate IVHM Benefit in Naval Ship Building, Procedia CIRP, 59 178-183.
- Binobaid S, Fan IS & Almeziny M (2016) Investigation Interoperability Problems in Pharmacy Automation: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia, Procedia Computer Science, 100 329-338.
- Pelham JG, Fan I-S, Jennions I & McFeat J (2013) Dual use IVHM for UAS health management, Sae Technical Paper Series, 7 (2013-01-2202).
- Fan I-S, Jennions IK, Matar F, Bridgeford M, Osborn S & Vickers G (2013) Warrior vehicle fleet sustainment using intelligent agent simulation, Procedia CIRP, 11 213-218.
- Abdallah S & Fan IS (2012) Framework for e-government assessment in developing countries: Case study from Sudan, Electronic Government, 9 (2) 158-177.
- Alwi NHM & Fan IS (2011) Threats analysis for e-learning, International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 2 (4) 358-371.
- Alwi NHM & Fan IS (2011) E-Learning and Information Security Management, International Journal for Digital Society (Ijds), 1 (2) 148-156.
- Grubic T, Bastl M, Fan I-S, Harrison A & Templar S (2010) Towards the Integrative Supply Chain Model, International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 13 (1) 59-73.
- Bastl M, Grubic T, Templar S, Harrison A & Fan I-S (2010) Inter-organisational costing approaches: the inhibiting factors, The International Journal of Logistics Management, 21 (1) 65-88.
- Grubic T & Fan IS (2010) Supply chain ontology: Review, analysis and synthesis, Computers in Industry, 61 (8) 776-786.
- Bermell-Garcia P & Fan IS (2008) Practitioner requirements for integrated Knowledge-Based Engineering in Product Lifecycle Management., International Journal of Product Lifecycle Management, 3 (1) 3-20.
- Fan I & Bermell P (2008) International Standard Development for Knowledge Based Engineering Services for Product Lifecycle Management, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications , 16 (4) 271-277.
- Webb C, Lettice F & Fan I-S (2007) "Don't dis' the ants, man!" Acknowledging the place of ants, termites, birds, and bees, Emergence: Complexity & Organization, 9 (1-2) 184-193.
- Najmi M, Rigas J & Fan IS (2005) A framework to review performance measurement systems, Business Process Management Journal, 11 (2) 109-122.
- Garcia-Fornieles J, Fan I, Perez A, Wainwright CER & Sehdev K (2003) A work breakdown structure that integrates different views in aircraft modification projects, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications , 11 (1) 47-54.
- Fan I & Filos E (2001) Concurrent Engineering Projects Supported by the European Commission's ESPRIT Programme and Future Trends, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications , 9 (2) 166-173.
- Fan IS (2000) Power of PDM, Manufacturing Engineer, 79 (6) 224-228.
- Gregory MJ & Fan IS (2000) Designing with suppliers, Manufacturing Engineer -London-, 79 (3) 105-108.
- Fan IS, Russell S & Lunn R (2000) Supplier knowledge exchange in aerospace product engineering, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 72 (1) 14-17.
- Fan IS, Gregory MJ, Hamblin DJ, Philpott E & Hadfield R (1999) A model of deploying engineering capability of aerospace suppliers in producibility analysis, SAE Technical Papers, 1999-01-2298.
- Cooper SC, Fan I-S, Sehdev K, Ward NJ & Williams GM (1998) Process modelling the design of complex products in global enterprises, International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, 11 (6) 398-408.
- Fan IS & Gassmann R (1997) The effects of allocation of functions on the long-term performance of manufacturing cells - A case study, Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing and Service Industries, 7 (2) 125-152.
- Fan IS & Liu CK (1997) Constraint ratio in product assembly planning, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 13 (6) 401-406.
- Heredia JA, Fan IS, Romero F & Rosado P (1996) A framework for an integrated quality system, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 61 (1-2) 195-200.
- Fan IS & Gassmann R (1995) A study of the practicalities of human-centered implementation in a British manufacturing company, Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 8 (2) 151-154.
- Fan I & Gassmann R (1995) Study of the practicalities of human centred implementation in a British manufacturing company, Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 8 (2) 151-154.
- Sackett P & Fan I (1989) The Control of a Flexible Manufacturing System by Short-term Goal Identification, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 4 (1) 123-143.
- Fan I & Sackett P (1988) A Prolog simulator for interactive flexible manufacturing systems control, SIMULATION, 50 (6) 239-247.
- Alsafi Tariq & Fan Ip-Shing (2020) Cloud computing adoption barriers faced by Saudi manufacturing SMEs. In: 15th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), Sevilla, 24-27 June 2020.
- Ripanti E, Tjahjono B & Fan I (2016) Maximising the retained value of product cannibalisation based on circular economy principles. In: 23rd EurOMA Conference, 2016, Trondheim, 19-22 June 2016.
- Hassan A & Fan IS (2016) Obstacles hindering TQM implementation in secondary schools in Saudi Arabia. In: International Conference on Education and New Developments 2016 (END 2016), Ljubljana, 12-14 June 2016.
- Fan IS & Oswin L (2016) Factory automation and information technology convergence in complex manufacturing. In: 14th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR 2016), Loughborough, 6-8 September 2016.
- Pelham JG, Fan I-S, Jennions I & McFeat J (2015) Application of an AIS to the problem of through life health management of remotely piloted aircraft. In: AIAA Infotech @ Aerospace 2015, Kissimmee, 5-9 January 2015.
- Radif M, Fan IS & McLaughln P (2015) Internal and external barriers influencing LMS implementation in Iraqi higher education. In: 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 2015, Seville, 18-20 November 2015.
- Heaton AE, Fan IS, Jennions IK, Lawson C & McFeat J (2015) A V-diagram for the design of integrated health management for unmanned aerial systems. In: Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, Coronado, California, 18-24 October 2015.
- Fan Ip-Shing, Taratoukhine Victor & Matzner Martin (2013) Interoperability to support Business - IT alignment. In: 5th International IFIP Working Conference on Enterprise Interoperability, Twente, Enschede, 27-28 March 2013.
- Heaton AE, Verma R, Fan I-S, Jennions IK, Lawson C & McFeat J (2013) Defining Integrated Vehicle Health Management requirements for unmanned aircraft using a QFD approach. In: AIAA Infotech@Aerospace 2013, Boston, MA, 19-22 August 2013.
- Pelham JG, Fan IS, Jennions I & McFeat J (2013) Dual use IVHM for UAS health management. In: 2013 AeroTech Congress & Exhibition, Montreal, 24-26 September 2013.
- Heaton AE, Fan I-S, Lawson C, McFeat J & Hill J (2012) Assessing vehicle health management requirements for Unmanned Air Systems. In: AIAA Infotech@Aerospace 2012, Garden Grove, Orange County, 19-21 June 2012.
- Alwi NHM & Fan I-S (2012) Cultural views inclusive in e-learning risk analysis. In: 2012 IEEE Symposium on E-Learning, E-Management and E-Services IS3e 2012, Kuala Lumpur, 21-24 October 2012.
- Fan I-S, Verma R, Jennions I & Dubicka A (2011) A business analysis methodology for Integrated equipment health management in high value assets. In: Asset Management Conference 2011, London, 30 November - 1 December 2011.
- Fan IS & Jennions I (2011) Asset health management system design. In: 17th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising 2011 (ICE2011), Aachen, 20 June 2011.
- Alwi NHM & Fan IS (2010) Information security threats analysis for e-learning. In: Technology enhanced learning: Quality of teaching and educational reform. TECH-EDUCATION 2010, Athens, 19-21 May 2010.
- Alwi NHM & Fan IS (2010) Information Security in eLearning: A Discussion of Empirical Data on Information Security and eLearning. In: 5th International conference on e-learning 2010, Penang, 12 July 2010 - 13 July 2012.
- Samy I, Postlethwaite I, Gu D-W & Fan IS (2010) Detection of multiple sensor faults using neural networks-demonstrated on a unmanned air vehicle (UAV) model. In: UKACC International Conference on Control 2010, Coventry, 7-10 September 2010.
- Grubic T & Fan I-S (2009) Integrating process and ontology for supply chain modelling. In: 2009 International Conference on Interoperability for Enterprise Software and Applications, Beijing, 21-22 April 2009.
- Alwi NHM & Fan I-S (2009) Information security management in E-learning. In: Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 2009. ICITST 2009., London, 9-12 November 2009.
- Bastl M, Grubic T, Templar S, Fan I-S & Harrison A (2008) Qualitative Enquiries: Lessons from the Field. In: Cranfield Multistrand Conference, Cranfield.
- Grubic T, Bastl M, Fan I-S, Templar S & Harrison A (2008) An empirical study of the automotive supply chain processes.. In: EurOMA 15th Annual Conference, Groningen.
- Bastl M, Grubic T, Templar S, Fan I-S & Harrison A (2008) Expanding the Horizon: Time and Costs in Supply Chain. In: EurOMA Annual Conference, Groningen.
- Templar S, Bernon M & Fan M (2006) Supply Chain Costing - A Road Map. In: Logistics Research Network Conference 2006, Newcastle, 6 September 2006.
- Wognum N, Mensink G, Buhl H, Ma X, Sedmak-Wells M & Fan I (2004) Collaborative enterprise system implementation improving project start-up. In: CE2004 11th ISPE International Conference On Concurrent Engineering: The Worldwide Engineering Grid, Beijing, China, 26 July 2004.
- Sedmak-Wells M & Fan I (2004) Hidden gems: what literature reveals about the cases of enterprise system implementation. In: British Academy of Management Annual Conference, 2004**, St Andrews, Scotland, 30 August - 1 September 2004.
- Garcia-Fornieles JM, Fan I, Perez A, Wainwright CER & Sehdev K (2003) A Cost Engineering Approach to Manage Unplanned Work ? An Example from Aircraft Modification. In: ICE2003 9th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising, Espoo, Finland, 16 June 2003.
- Fan I & Bermell-Garcia P (2003) Virtual Concept model using design knowledge. In: Virtual Concept 2003, Biarritz, France, 5 November 2003.
- Wognum P, Fan I & Albert C (2002) Enterprise systems implementation. In: 9th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, Cranfield University, 27-31 July 2002.
- Fan I & Huang C (2002) Aligning local office management plan to global corporate strategy. In: 7th International Manufacturing Research Symposium ý Restructuring Global Manufacturing, Cambridge, UK, 12 September 2002.
- Najmi M & Fan I (2002) Concurrent Engineering in Total Quality Management Environment. In: ICE2002 8th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising "Ubiquitous Engineering in the Collaborative Economy, Rome, Italy, 17 June 2002.
- Fan I, Li G, Lagos-Hernandez M, Bermell-Garcia P & Twelves M (2002) A rule level knowledge management system for knowledge based engineering applications. In: ASME 2002 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Montreal, Québec, 29 September - 2 October 2002.
- Fan I & Albert C (2001) Feasibility of using the TRIZ concept in process model for workflow implementation. In: Invention Machine Global User Group Conference, Sardinia. Italy, 15 October 2001.
- Gregory MJ & Fan I-S (2001) Possible sources of sub-optimisation in design for manufacture - An initial survey. In: ASME 2001 international design engineering technical conference and computers and information in engineering conference (IDETC/CIE 2001), Pittsburgh, 9-12 September 2001.
- Rigas J & Fan I (2001) An action based performance improvement framework for achieving organisational improvements. In: 1st International Workshop on Performance Measurement, IFIP 5.7 Special Interest Group on Performance Measurement, University of Strathclyde, 24 May 2001.
- Huang C & Fan I (2001) Qualitative analysis of manufacturing strategy deployment issues for globalisation ý a quick survey. In: 6th International Manufacturing Research Symposium ý Global Integration, Cambridge, UK, 9 September 2001.
- Fan I (2001) Achieving time compression through the re-engineering of a multi-disciplinary product development project. In: Time Compression Technologies Conference, Manchester, UK, 26 September 2001.
- Fan I & Huang C (2001) Evaluation of an enterprise policy deployment framework on the globalisation strategy development of a Taiwanese information technology manufacturing. In: 16th International Conference on Production Research, Prague, Czech Republic, 29 July 2001.
- Bermell-Garcia P, Fan I, Li G, Porter R & Butter D (2001) Effective abstraction of engineering knowledge for KBE implementation. In: 13th International Conference on Engineering Design, Glasgow, 21-23 August 2001.
- Garcia-Fornieles JM, Fan I, Perez A, Wainwright CER & Sehdev K (2001) An integrated WBS for aircraft modification project management. In: Eighth ISPE International Conference On Concurrent Engineering: Research And Applications, Anaheim, California, USA, 28 July 2001.
- Estorilio C & Fan I (2001) Using process model analysis to introduce CE techniques to improve product development process. In: Eighth ISPE International Conference On Concurrent Engineering: Research And Applications, Anaheim, California, USA, 28 July 2001.
- Fan I, Estorilio C, Kee H, Waters J & Roberto N (2001) Realising new product development improvement through process and change analysis ý an industrial case study. In: 8th International Product Development Management Conference, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands, 11 July 2001.
- Fan IS, Wu B & Huang C (2000) An investigation of human resources policy deployment within manufacturing systems. In: Advances in manufacturing technology XIV : proceedings of the 16th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, London, 5-7 September 2000.
- Perez A, Garcia-Fornieles JM, Fan IS, Sehdev K & Wainwright CER (2000) The development of manufacturing cost-estimation processes for aerospace modification. In: Advances in manufacturing technology XIV : proceedings of the 16th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, London, 5-7 September 2000.
- Najmi M, Rigas J & Fan IS (1999) A methodology to link performance indicators to process models. In: Advances in manufacturing technology XIII : proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, Bath, 6-8 September 1998.
- Fan IS, Ward NJ, Cooper SC, Sehdev K & Williams G (1999) Definition of a generic capability model for extended enterprise design for manufacture. In: IFIP TC5 WG5.3 / PRODNET Working Conference on Infrastructures for Virtual Enterprises: Networking Industrial Enterprises , Porto, 27-28 October 1999.
- Fan IS, Cooper SC, Li G, Sehdev K & Grealy T (1999) Knowledge based engineering as a CE tool to achieve fast design iterations. In: 6th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering (CE99), Bath, 1-3 September 1999.
- Garcia-Fornieles JM, Fan IS, Wainwright C & Sehdev K (1999) Practical considerations in aircraft modification and its impact in cost estimation. In: Advances in manufacturing technology XIII : proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, Bath, 6-8 September 1998.
- Cooper SC, Fan IS, Roy R & Sehdev K (1998) Reuse of machining knowledge in aircraft design. In: Engineering Design Conference, 1998 : Design Reuse, Brunel University, 23-25 June 1998.
- Gillies J, Allen P & Fan I-S (1998) Self-organising supply chain networks: the Italian garment industry. In: 1st UK National Complexity Conference, Warwick.
- Sehdev K, Sackett P, Fan I & Gillies JM (1997) Manufacturing Strategy - Meeting Global Challenges. In: International Manufacturing Symposium, Cambridge University, U.K., 28 September 1997.
- Fan I-S & Gillies J (1997) An initial mapping of complexity theory onto a model of Extended Enterprise relationships. In: 13th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, Glasgow.
- Fan IS, Ward N, Cooper S, Sehdev K & Willams G (1997) Supplier information model in an extended enterprise. In: 4th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering (CE97), Rochester, 20-22 August 1997.
- Sackett P, Lowenthal PA, Gillies JM & Fan I (1996) Extended Enterprise: The Development of Trust and Its Enabling Organisational Structures. In: 2nd Anthropocentric Lean Production Systems Euroconference - Education of European Management in a Global Economy: New Production Systems, Work and Society (ALPS), Bologna, Italy, 23 September 1996.
- Gillies J, Nelder G & Fan I-S (1996) Agile Manugacturing: Applicability to Small and Medium Size Manufacturing Enterprises. In: CARS & FOF, London.
- Wallace G, Fan I & Sackett P (1995) An integrated approach for the application of design for assembly to products in low volume production. In: 5th International Conference of Flexible Automation & Intelligent Manufacturing, Stuttgart, Germany, 28-30 June 1995.
- Fan IS, Nelder GP & Mobasherfar KM (1994) The Phoenix manufacturing control research testbed. In: 4th International Conference on Factory 2000: Advanced Factory Automation, 1994, York, 3-5 October 1994.
- Brophy G, Lettice FE, Sackett P & Fan I (1994) Concurrent Engineering with CATIA. In: 1993 European CATIA User's Association, Noordwizk, Holland, 13 October 1994.
- Chutima P, Fan IS & Harrington SJ (1992) Flexible robotic assembly control systems. In: 3rd International Conference on Factory 2000: Competitive Performance Through Advanced Technology, 1992, York, 27-29 July 1992.
- Sackett P, Brophy G & Fan I (1992) Developing a design tool for miniature products. In: 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Production Engineering, Edinburgh, UK, 1 August 1992.
- Sackett P & Fan I (1988) Goal Identification for Flexible Manufacturing System Control. In: International Federation for Information Processing IFIP WG 5.7, Galway, Ireland, 23 August 1988.
- Fan I & Sackett P (1988) An Architecture for Knowledge Based Flexible Manufacturing Cell Control. In: 4th International Conference on Computer Aided Production Engineering, Edinburgh, UK, 11 November 1988.
- Abdallah A & Fan I Emerging Challenges of Digital Aircraft Operations and Maintenance: A Knowledge Management Perspective. In: TESConf 2020 - 9th International Conference on Through-life Engineering Services, Online, 3-4 November 2020.
- Fan I, Bermell P & Murton A Towards The Semantic Interoperability Between KBE And PLM Systems. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICEDý07, Paris.
- Wang G, Fan I & Bermell P Comparison Of Knowledge Representation And Exchange In Knowledge Based Engineering Systems. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICEDý, Paris.
- Ripanti E, Tjahjono B & Fan I Circular economy in reverse logistics: relationships and potential applications in product remanufacturing. In: The 20th Annual Conference of The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport, Logistics Research Network (LRN), University of Derby, 9 September 2015.
- Mohd Alwi NH & Fan I-S (2010) Information security threats analysis for E-learning. In: Technology Enhanced Learning. Quality of Teaching and Educational Reform: First International Conference, TECH-EDUCATION 2010, Athens, Greece, May 19-21, 2010. Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Science and Business Media, p. 285-291.
- Fan IS, Wognum N & Buhl H (2004) Getting organisation and human ready for information systems. In: Information and Communication Technologies and the Knowledge Economy: Volume 1, Pt. 2: eAdoption and the knowledge economy : issues, applications, case studies, Amsterdam ; Oxford: IOS Press, p. 1387-1394.
- Fan I, Wognum N & Dodds P (2003) Better Enterprise Systems Implementation. In: Building the knowledge economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies, IOS, p. 1236-1243.
- Fan IS, Hernando D, Gregory M, Hamblin D, Philpott E & Russell S (1999) A decision support tool to set up concurrent engineering projects with different levels of suppliers' involvement. In: Proceedings of the Sixth ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, Lancaster, PA, p. 57-65, ed. Proceedings of the Sixth ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering, 1-3 September 1999, Bath, UK..
- Sackett P & Fan I (1989) Goal Identification for Flexible Manufacturing Control. In: Knowledge Based Production Management Systems, Elsevier Science Publishers (North Holland), p. 311-329.