This project will consider the potential for sequestering atmospheric CO2 by applications of silicate minerals to arable and pasture soils in the UK, and the extent to which this could contribute to reducing net carbon emissions from UK farming to zero. FoodBioSystems is a UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) funded doctoral training partnership (DTP) which brings together six UK universities internationally recognised for their expertise in agriculture, food and nutrition, as well as fundamental bioscience disciplines. The DTP is led by the University of Reading in collaboration with Cranfield University, Queen’s University Belfast, Aberystwyth University, Surrey University and Brunel University London. Read more Read less

One of the most promising ‘geo-engineering’ methods to mitigate climate change is to capture CO2 from the air and react it with silicate rocks to form carbonate rocks, so permanently sequestering the CO2. A Swiss- based company (Climeworks) is already offering to do this for $1,000 per tonne of CO2 using a CO2-capturing technology and pumping the CO2 deep underground to react with basalt rocks. However this process is highly energy intensive, and the net CO2 capture is correspondingly reduced. A less energy-intensive approach – which this project will test – is to exploit CO2 capture by plants in photosynthesis and decomposition in soil on agricultural land, using finely-divided silicates applied on the soil to fix the CO2 as environmentally-benign carbonates. Soils are a good source of CO2 for this because C fixed by plants and released in root and soil respiration results in the CO2 pressures in soil air being 10– 1000 times that in the bulk atmosphere. There are many sources of suitable silicate rocks and calculations have been made of the circumstances required for the C capture gains to exceed the C costs of mining and transport to application sites.

Most attention to date has been on large, regional-scale applications of silicates in warm and wet tropical areas considered to be weathering ‘hot spots’. This project will consider the potential for this technology on arable and pasture land in the UK, and the extent to which it could contribute to reducing carbon emissions from UK farming to zero. Simple calculations indicate that, as a minimum, substitution of silicates for agricultural lime could offset a significant proportion of carbon emissions. Agricultural lime is typically incorporated to less than 20-cm depth. A much greater CO2 offset could be achieved if the effects of the applied silicate reached subsoil and caused carbonate precipitation there. In principle this could be achieved by manipulating the chemistry of the surface soil and exploiting leaching processes. However, the necessary conditions for this to work are not well understood, and there are no reliable models with which to predict where such a technology would be successful, and how to develop routes to adoption by the agriculture sector.

This project will explore technologies for exploiting enhanced silicate weathering to sequester atmospheric CO2, and the potential for such technologies to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from UK farming. Specific objectives towards these ends:

1. To test the hypothesis that it is practicable to manipulate surface soil conditions to enhance dissolution of applied silicates and precipitate leached dissolution products as carbonate in the subsoil. This will be done in controlled-environment experiments with planted soils and alternative sources and forms of silicates.

2. To develop and test a predictive model of enhanced silicate weathering in soils, including the processes governing leaching and precipitation of carbonate in subsoils. The model will be tested against the results of the experiments under Objective 1.

3. To assess the extent to which this technology might affect the mineral nutrition and trace element composition of arable crops and pasture grasses.

4. To explore routes to adoption by manufacturers of agricultural products and farmers.

Training opportunities:

This is a great opportunity to work in a project at the cutting edge of food systems and environmental science and to learn cutting-edge techniques in soil chemistry, physics and biology, plant nutrition, and mathematical modelling. The student will join a group of over 50 PhD students in the Cranfield Environment and Agrifood Theme, including students from other UKRI-funded doctoral training centres. They will have access to a full range of associated training modules. They will also benefit from interactions with an industrial partner, including work placement.

At a glance

  • Application deadline13 Jun 2022
  • Award type(s)PhD
  • Duration of award4 years
  • EligibilityUK, EU, Rest of World
  • Reference numberFBS2022-38-Kirk-cr

Supervisor

Lead supervisor:
Dr Guy Kirk Cranfield University
E: g.kirk@cranfield.ac.uk

Co-supervisors:
John Hammond -  University of Reading
Nick Girkin - Cranfield University

Entry requirements

1st or upper 2nd class degree is required in a subject appropriate to the PhD projects applied for (see the project description for more info). Candidates with a lower class of Bachelors degree, but a good performance at the Masters level (“merit” or above) will also be considered.
 
This project would be suitable for students with a degree in biology, chemistry, geology, environmental science or a closely related science.
 
The studentships are predominantly open to students with established UK residency. Although international students (including EU countries) can apply, due to funding rules no more than 30% of the projects can be allocated to international students.

Funding

For up to date information on funding eligibility, studentship rates and part time registration, please visit the FoodBioSystems DTP website.

Cranfield Doctoral Network

Research students at Cranfield benefit from being part of a dynamic, focused and professional study environment and all become valued members of the Cranfield Doctoral Network. This network brings together both research students and staff, providing a platform for our researchers to share ideas and collaborate in a multi-disciplinary environment. It aims to encourage an effective and vibrant research culture, founded upon the diversity of activities and knowledge. A tailored programme of seminars and events, alongside our Doctoral Researchers Core Development programme (transferable skills training), provide those studying a research degree with a wealth of social and networking opportunities.

How to apply

Dr Guy Kirk Cranfield University
E: g.kirk@cranfield.ac.uk

Please go to FoodBioSystems DTP website for information on how to apply for this studentship.
 
The closing date for applications will be 13th June 2022.